Cultural Patina

Cultural Patina provides a platform for people to access global high quality art, easily. Since their establishment in 2014 owner Dennis has managed to collect a plethora of pottery, sculptures, textiles, jewellery from across the globe and the second largest accumulation of original Naga Indian art in US.

Countries
  • USA
Objects "Cultural Patina"

Native American, Vintage Navajo Hand Woven Wide Ruins Weaving, Textile

Native American, Vintage Navajo Hand Woven Wide Ruins Weaving, Textile, Rug, Ca 1970's #1046 #1046. Native American, Vintage Navajo Hand Woven Wide Ruins Weaving, Textile, Rug, Ca 1970's. All vegetable dyes. Condition: Excellent condition, like new. Dimensions: 54" x 36.25". Provenance: From a Tenn Estate collection. A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700's Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700's Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863–4, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as piñon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weaving's they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880s, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. ________________________________________ Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, and originally appeared in The Collector’s Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11 ----------------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Historic Native American Navajo Crystal Rug/Weaving, Ca 1920's, #809

Native American, Historic Navajo Crystal Rug, Ca 1920 809, Description: Native American historic Navajo Crystal Rug - Large Navajo Rug, circa 1920, in salmon, orange, grey and black with diamonds, zig-zags and fleches, set into stripes, a very soft weave. Dimensions: 80" x 56 1/2". Condition: Very good condition for its age. The piece had a binding loose and I am having it repaired. Provenance: From a private Rockport, Maine estate. ---------- A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700s Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700s Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863–4, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weavings in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890s, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as piñon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest railhead and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weavings they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880s, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. ________________________________________ Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, originally appeared in The Collector’s Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11 ---------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Olaf Wieghorst (American, 1899-1988), " A Big Loop", Etching on Paper, #861

Western artist Olaf Wieghorst "A Big Loop" Etching on Paper 861. Description: Western artist Olaf Wieghorst (American, 1899-1988) “A Big Loop”. Etching on paper, signed and titled in margin. This is an exceedingly rare impression and of the kind subject that Wieghorst is famous for. Piece has been newly framed, re-matted and conservation glass added to protect the etching. Size: 5.75 X 8 inches (sight). Conditon: Overall toning, otherwise in excellent condition. -------- Additional Olaf Wieghorst Paintings can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16492699 ----------- The Artist: Olaf Wieghorst (April 30, 1899 in Viborg, Denmark – April 27, 1988 in California, United States) was a painter of the American West in the vein of Frederic Remington and Charles Russell. Wieghorst immigrated to the United States from Denmark in 1918 and lived the rest of his life there. He spent his working career on mounted patrol with the U.S. Cavalry, was part of a campaign that chased Poncho Villa back across the border and the New York City Police Department Mounted Division, with occasional interludes as a wrangler on ranches in the western states. Wherever he went, he sketched and painted the Western culture he loved, often selling his work as calendar and magazine illustrations (such as Zane Grey's Western Magazine and Hoofs and Horns, an honor he shared with other cowboy artists such as Dan Muller). In 1945, Wieghorst eventually settled in El Cajon, San Diego County, California and spent the rest of his life there working on his art. Many of his works can be found on display at the Olaf Wieghorst Museum in El Cajon, California (a San Diego suburb). --------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnav.Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Fine Art :Rare, Original, Ron Stewart, Bronze Sculpture, "Brother

Fine Art 325.Description: Ron Stewart (1941 - ). Brother to the Wolf. " bronze. Inscribed: Ron Stewart © 3/45. According to Ron, there were only 4 of these made as the mold was destroyed and could no longer be used. He reportedly will reissue this piece later this year given a renewed request for this piece. Dimensions: 13" x 20" x 9". Condition: Excellent Condition for its age and has a very nice patina. Provenance: Golden Eagle Trading Co. ----------- Additional Ron Stewart Paintings and Bronze can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16492699 and his Bronze work can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16131018 ----------- Ron Stewart is a painter and sculptor of western, historical, wildlife, and animal subjects. He was born in Brooklyn, NY. In the over-crowded field of contemporary western artists, Ron Stewart's professional achievements have made his work familiar to a wide range of discriminating collectors. Ron is among those who is tied hard and fast to the quality of painting and the historical fidelity of the Old West Masters. The refined artistic abilities, in watercolor, oil, and bronze, are truly distinguished, but Ron brings more to his work than just the technical competence of a western illustrator. The Ron Stewart hallmark is the representation of the mood and the atmosphere appropriate to whatever he approaches. His paintings breathe life into the dusty pages of western history, be it the bawl of longhorn cattle, the war whoop of the red men, or the mountain man in his wilderness solitude. Ron has received awards multiple times at the competitive Death Valley Invitational (5), the George Phippen Memorial (3), and Best of Show, and Best Watercolor at the Pikes Peak National Invitational Show (2), and he also received numerous awards at the Western Artist of America, including three gold medals in Watercolor, two Silver medals in Watercolor, and one Silver medal in Oil, and one Silver medal in Bronze. His work can be seen at Mountain Trail Galleries in Jackson, Wyoming; Signature Gallery, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Santa Fe, NM; Long coat Gallery, Ruidoso, NM; and Sanders Gallery, Tucson, AZ. His life was chronicled in Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West in winter of 1979, Stewart has exhibited throughout the West in juried and group shows, collecting a variety of top awards for his works, including numerous gold and silver medals in oil, watercolor, bronze and drawing. International collections include locations in England, France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Spain, the Philippines, and Japan. Please note that my collection of Ron Stewart Art is one of the largest in the United States, as a result I do have 24 more extraordinary paintings and bronze that are not old enough to put up by Etsy standards. If you are interested in seeing these additional pieces, please let me know directly. ----------------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavRead more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Western Art, Bill Lundquist, Oil on Canvas Portrait of a Native American

Western Art Bill Lundquist 896. Description: Western Art, Bill Lundquist, Oil on Canvas Portrait of a Native American Woman, Miha Cante, Signed Lundquist. “Miha Cante was my favorite model when I was living in Pinetop, Arizona. She was a member of the White Mountain Apache Tribe and was married to the Assistant Chief Counsel for the tribe. As you can see from the attached images, I used her a lot. The painting would have been finished in approximately 1989. I believe it was a preliminary study for the painting shown in the newspaper article.” Best regards, Bill Dimension: 12'' x 9''. Condition: Good condition. No apparent damages or repairs. Some background on Bill Lundquist: "In the fifth grade, the art teacher gave each of us a small mirror and told us to do a drawing of ourselves. She gave me an A+ which I proudly showed my parents. My dad promptly went to the drug store and bought a tablet and a small set of colored pencils and encouraged me to draw. I began copying Red Ryder comic books and could hardly wait until the next issue came out. It wasn't long before I spread my wings and began to explore painting. That was over a half a century ago and the journey continues as I learn new truths each time I make new marks on paper or strokes on canvas. My formal art education was acquired from Arizona State University. After graduating with a minor in fine art I continued to expand my artistic skills and insights through workshops and private study with such notable artists as Don Ruffin, Jay Datus, Mary Beth McKenzie, James Boren, Ina May Moore, Burton Silverman, William Whitaker, Eric Weigart and Sherrie McGraw. My informal education was less exciting consisting of doing countless numbers of drawings and paintings many of which were, quite frankly, very bad. Experience will always be the best teacher. Since I work in oils, watercolors, pastels and all the implements of drawing, I am often asked which medium I prefer. I am always at a loss in my response because I really have no particular preference. It is whatever is at hand at the time. It's the journey I look forward to and not the vehicle that will get me to my destination. Drawing and watercolor can get me to an excited high in 20 minutes whereas with oil painting the experience can last much longer. I am a third generation native of Arizona having been born in Tucson a long time ago. Arizona is my home and the source of much of my artistic inspiration. When I am not at an easel I like to explore the backroads of my state and gather in the true nature of its beauty. Its people, places, flora, fauna and artifacts have often been used as subjects of my artwork. I live with my wife, daughter and two small dogs in Phoenix, Arizona. About ten years ago I decided to share my learning experiences with others and began teaching. Currently, I am an art instructor at the Scottsdale Artists' School where I teach oil painting and basic drawing. I also conduct classes at the Scottsdale Via Linda Senior Center in life drawing, portrait drawing and watercolor. Frequently, I meet with individual students and small groups on a more informal basis. My work is in private collections worldwide and corporate collections including Wells Fargo Bank, Giant Industries and Kansas State University." (Source: billlundquist.blogspot.com) ----------------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Tribal Clothing : Authentic Zemi Naga Tribe Woman's Skirt, with Black

Tribal Clothing Authentic Zemi Naga Tribe Woman's Skirt 653. Authentic Zemi Naga Tribe Woman's Skirt, with black background with finely woven white and orange center stripe. The piece is 48 inches long and 25 inches wide. Some ware, but overall in excellent condition for its use and age which is estimated to be early to mid 20th century. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.(Source: Times of India)Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Naga Sash Belt : Vintage Konyak Naga Beaded Belt/Sash from North East

Naga Sash Belt Vintage Konyak Naga Beaded Belt 541. Konyak Naga Beaded Belt/Sash from North East India. Approximately 33" long and 4.5" at its widest point. Multi colored glass beads separated by bone spacers. The clasp has been repaired, but other than this, the piece is in overall good condition for its age which could be early to mid 1900"s. This piece of attire was once the only item worn by the girls of the lower Konyak when the British first made contact. Provenance: A couple in London, England who received this piece as a wedding gift from highly placed members of the Brides family in Nagaland where they were married many years ago. The Konyak are a Naga people, and are recognized among other Naga by their tattoos, which they have all over their face and hands; facial tattoos were earned for taking an enemy's head. They are called the land of Angh's. They have the largest population among the Nagas. The Konyaks can be found in Myanmar, in the Tirap and Changlang districts of Arunachal, and in the Mon district of Nagaland, India. They are known in Arunachal as Wancho Konyak. The Konyak language belongs to the Northern Naga subbranch of the Sal subfamily of Sino-Tibetan. Known as head hunters of North East India. In the recent past, they were known as war loving and often attacked nearby villages of other tribes taking the heads of opposing warriors as trophies to hang in the Morong (a communal house). The number of heads indicated the power of a warrior and the tribe and becomes a collective totem. With the exception of these behaviors, the tribal members maintain a much disciplined community life with strict duties and responsibilities for every individual. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewellery. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5. (Source: Times of India)Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Warrior : Authentic Chang Warrior Sash with Eight Double Cowry Shell

Warrior Authentic Chang Warrior Sash with Eight Double Cowry Shell Circles. Finely woven sash with stitched cowry shells. This would have been part of a pair worn in crisscross fashion across a Chang warrior‰۪s chest. Weaving and supplemental weaving, sometimes with red dyed dog‰۪s hair, are extremely fine. The sash is 63 inches long and 5 inches wide. All the cowry shells are in tack and the piece is in extremely good condition for its use and age which is estimated to be early to mid 19th century. Please note that the designation ‰ÛÏAuthentic‰۝ means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga ‰ÛÒ A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Native American Rare Historic Tohono O'odham Cooking Pot, Ca 1930's, #1140

Native American Rare Historic Tohono O'odham Cooking Pot, Ca 1930's, #1140 Description: #1140 Native American Rare Historic Tohono O'odham Cooking Pot, Ca Early 1900's, Dimensions: Size: 11” wide overall x 5 Condition: Pretty good for its age, has a couple of cracks with repairs. I normally do not acquire items with cracks or chips, but these pieces are so rare, I obtained them. Historically, the O’odham inhabited an enormous area of land in the southwest, extending South to Sonora, Mexico, north to Central Arizona (just north of Phoenix, Arizona), west to the Gulf of California, and east to the San Pedro River. This land base was known as the Papagueria and it had been home to the O’odham for thousands of years. From the early 18th Century through to the present, the O’odham land was occupied by foreign governments. With the independence of Republic of Mexico, O’odham fell under Mexican rule. Then, in 1853, through the Gadsden Purchase or Treaty of La Mesilla, O’odham land was divided almost in half, between the United States of America and Mexico. According to the terms of the Gadsden Purchase, the United States agreed to honor all land rights of the area held by Mexican citizens, which included the O’odham, and O’odham would have the same constitutional rights as any other United States citizen. However, the demand for land for settlement escalated with the development of mining and the transcontinental railroad. That demand resulted in the loss of O’odham land on both sides of the border. Following the Plan de Iguala, O’odham lands in Mexico continued to decrease at a rapid rate. In 1927, reserves of lands for indigenous peoples, were established by Mexico. Today, approximately nine O’odham communities in Mexico lie proximate to the southern edge of the Tohono O’odham Nation, a number of which are separated only by the United States/Mexico border. On the U.S. side of the border, the Gadsden Purchase had little effect on the O’odham initially because they were not informed that a purchase of their land had been made, and the new border between the United States and Mexico was not strictly enforced. In recent years, however, the border has come to affect the O’odham in many ways, because immigration laws prevent the O’odham from crossing it freely. In fact, the U.S.-Mexico border has become “an artificial barrier to the freedom of the Tohono O’odham. . . to traverse their lands, impairing their ability to collect foods and materials needed to sustain their culture and to visit family members and traditional sacred sites.” O’odham members must produce passports and border identification cards to enter into the United States. On countless occasions, the U.S. Border Patrol has detained and deported members of the Tohono O’odham Nation who were simply traveling through their own traditional lands, practicing migratory traditions essential to their religion, economy and culture. Similarly, on many occasions U.S. Customs have prevented Tohono O’odham from transporting raw materials and goods essential for their spirituality, economy and traditional culture. Border officials are also reported to have confiscated cultural and religious items, such as feathers of common birds, pine leaves or sweet grass. The division of O’odham lands has resulted in an artificial division of O’odham society. O’odham bands are now broken up into 4 federally recognized tribes: the Tohono O’odham Nation, the Gila River Indian Community, the Ak-Chin Indian Community and the Salt River (Pima Maricopa) Indian community. Each band is now politically and geographically distinct and separate. The remaining band, the Hia-C’ed O’odham, are not federally recognized, but reside throughout southwestern Arizona. All of the groups still speak the O’odham language, which derives from the Uto-Aztecan language group, although each group has varying dialects. (Source Tohono O'odham Nation)Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Pottery Jar : Very Nice Pre-Columbian Wari Pottery Jar From Peru #364

Pottery Jar 364. Description: Wari Pre-Columbian Polychrome Pottery. Dimensions are approximately 5.5" high x 5. Wide. The snake on the left side is missing part of his body. Other than this, very good for its age. All items are unconditionally guaranteed to be Authentic as described. For added security we offer a full money-back guarantee if a recognized authority disputes the authenticity of any object sold. The Wari (Spanish: Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.[1] (The Wari culture is not to be confused with the modern ethnic group and language known as Wari', with which it has no known link.) Wari, as the former capital city was called, is located 11 km (6.8 mi) north-east of the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. This city was the center of a civilization that covered much of the highlands and coast of modern Peru. The best-preserved remnants, beside the Wari Ruins, are the recently discovered Northern Wari ruins near the city of Chiclayo, and Cerro Baul in Moquegua. Also well-known are the Wari ruins of Pikillaqta ("Flea Town"), a short distance south-east of Cuzco en route to Lake Titicaca. Early on, the Wari expanded their territory to include the ancient oracle center of Pachacamac, though it seems to have remained largely autonomous. Later the Wari became dominant in much of the territory of the earlier Moche and later Chimu cultures. The reason for this expansion has been debated; it is believed to have been driven by religious conversion, military conquest, or the spread of agricultural knowledge (specifically terrace agriculture). During this expansion, the Wari state established architecturally distinctive administrative centers in many of its provinces. These centers are clearly different from the architecture of Tiwanaku, which is believed to have been a more federalized state by some scholars (such as John W. Janusek). Using these administrative centers, the Wari greatly influenced the surrounding countryside. They created new fields with terraced field technology and invested in construction of a major road network. Several centuries later, when the Inca began to expand their empire, they drew on both of these innovations. Little is known about the details of the Wari administrative structure, as they did not appear to use a form of written record. But, the emphasis on homogeneous administrative architecture and evidence for significant social stratification suggests a complex socio-political hierarchy. The discovery in early 2013 of an undisturbed royal tomb, El Castillo de Huarmey, offers new insight into the social and political influence of the Wari during this period. The variety and extent of the burial items accompanying the three royal women indicates a culture with significant material wealth and the power to dominate a significant part of northern costal Peru for many decades.[2] As a result of centuries of drought, the Wari culture began to deteriorate around 800 A.D. Archeologists have determined that the city of Wari was dramatically depopulated by 1000 A.D., although it continued to be occupied by a small number of descendant groups. Buildings in Wari and in other government centers had doorways that were deliberately blocked up, as if the Wari intended to return, someday when the rains returned.[3] But by the time this happened, the Wari had faded from history. In the meantime, the dwindling residents of the Wari cities ceased all major construction. Archaeological evidence shows significant levels of inter-personal violence, suggesting that warfare and raiding increased amongst rival groups upon the collapse of the Wari state structure (TA Tung 2008). With the collapse of the Wari, the Late Intermediate Period is said to begin. References 1. Susan E. Bergh (2012). Wari: Lords of the Ancient Andes. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51656-0. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 2. First Unlooted Royal Tomb of Its Kind Unearthed in Peru". Retrieved 2013-06-0. 3. Wright, Kenneth R.; McEwan, Gordon Francis; Wright, Ruth M. (2006). Tipon: Water Engineering Masterpiece of the Inca Empire. ASCE. p. 27. ISBN 9780784408513. Additional reading 4. COLLIER, SIMON ET AL. (ED.) (1992). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Latin America and the Caribbean (Second Edition ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41322-2. 5. Wendell C. Bennett, Excavations at Wari, Ayachucho, Peru (1953). 6. Gordon F. McEwan, The Middle Horizon in the Valley of Cuzco, Peru: The Impact of the Wari Occupation of the Lucre Basin (1987). 7. William H. Isbell and Gordon F. McEwan, eds., Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government (1991). 8. Katharina J. Schreiber, Wari Imperialism in Middle Horizon Peru (1992). 9. TA Tung. Violence after Imperial Collapse: A Study of Cranial Trauma among Late Intermediate Period Burials from the Former Huari Capital, Ayacucho, Peru. Nawpa Pacha. 29:101-118. (2008) External links 10. Brian Finucane, "Ayacucho Archaeo-Isotope Project" 11. "Archaeological chemists settle trophy-head debate 12. "Pre-Incan female Wari mummy unearthed in Peru", Reuters 13. "A Champion of the Wari," about curator Susan E. Bergh, by Judith H. Dobrzynski, The Wall Street Journal, October 24, 2012 14. "Who Was Who in the Middle Horizon Andean Prehistory" by Patricia J. Knobloch (Source Wikipedia)Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Naga : Authentic Naga Dao Holder Made from Wood and Rattan with a

Naga Authentic Naga Dao Holder Basket 578. Authentic Naga Dao Holder Made from Wood and Rattan with a small side basket. In very good condition for its use and age estimated to be early to mid 1900's. It also has great patina both front and back. This unit was made to hold the Naga Dao knife, Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, wood carving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5. (Source: Times of India)Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Antique Pottery : Very Good Wari Pre-Columbian Polychrome Pottery

Antique Pottery #360. Description: Wari Pre-Columbian Poly-chrome Pottery Storage vessel. Dimensions are approximately 9" high x 11" Wide. Very good condition for its age. All items are unconditionally guaranteed to be Authentic as described. For added security we offer a full money-back guarantee if a recognized authority disputes the authenticity of any object sold. The Wari (Spanish: Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.[1] (The Wari culture is not to be confused with the modern ethnic group and language known as Wari', with which it has no known link.) Wari, as the former capital city was called, is located 11 km (6.8 mi) north-east of the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. This city was the center of a civilization that covered much of the highlands and coast of modern Peru. The best-preserved remnants, beside the Wari Ruins, are the recently discovered Northern Wari ruins near the city of Chiclayo, and Cerro Baul in Moquegua. Also well-known are the Wari ruins of Pikillaqta ("Flea Town"), a short distance south-east of Cuzco en route to Lake Titicaca. Early on, the Wari expanded their territory to include the ancient oracle center of Pachacamac, though it seems to have remained largely autonomous. Later the Wari became dominant in much of the territory of the earlier Moche and later Chimu cultures. The reason for this expansion has been debated; it is believed to have been driven by religious conversion, military conquest, or the spread of agricultural knowledge (specifically terrace agriculture). During this expansion, the Wari state established architecturally distinctive administrative centers in many of its provinces. These centres are clearly different from the architecture of Tiwanaku, which is believed to have been a more federalized state by some scholars (such as John W. Janusek). Using these administrative centers, the Wari greatly influenced the surrounding countryside. They created new fields with terraced field technology and invested in construction of a major road network. Several centuries later, when the Inca began to expand their empire, they drew on both of these innovations. Little is known about the details of the Wari administrative structure, as they did not appear to use a form of written record. But, the emphasis on homogeneous administrative architecture and evidence for significant social stratification suggests a complex socio-political hierarchy. The discovery in early 2013 of an undisturbed royal tomb, El Castillo de Huarmey, offers new insight into the social and political influence of the Wari during this period. The variety and extent of the burial items accompanying the three royal women indicates a culture with significant material wealth and the power to dominate a significant part of northern costal Peru for many decades.[2] As a result of centuries of drought, the Wari culture began to deteriorate around 800 A.D. Archeologists have determined that the city of Wari was dramatically depopulated by 1000 A.D., although it continued to be occupied by a small number of descendant groups. Buildings in Wari and in other government centers had doorways that were deliberately blocked up, as if the Wari intended to return, someday when the rains returned.[3] But by the time this happened, the Wari had faded from history. In the meantime, the dwindling residents of the Wari cities ceased all major construction. Archaeological evidence shows significant levels of inter-personal violence, suggesting that warfare and raiding increased amongst rival groups upon the collapse of the Wari state structure (TA Tung 2008). With the collapse of the Wari, the Late Intermediate Period is said to begin. References 1. Jump up ^ Susan E. Bergh (2012). Wari: Lords of the Ancient Andes. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51656-0. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 2. Jump up ^ "First Unlooted Royal Tomb of Its Kind Unearthed in Peru". Retrieved 2013-06-0. 3. Jump up ^ Wright, Kenneth R.; McEwan, Gordon Francis; Wright, Ruth M. (2006). Tipon: Water Engineering Masterpiece of the Inca Empire. ASCE. p. 27. ISBN 9780784408513. Additional reading COLLIER, SIMON ET AL. (ED.) (1992). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Latin America and the Caribbean (Second Edition ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41322-2. Wendell C. Bennett, Excavations at Wari, Ayachucho, Peru (1953). Gordon F. McEwan, The Middle Horizon in the Valley of Cuzco, Peru: The Impact of the Wari Occupation of the Lucre Basin (1987). William H. Isbell and Gordon F. McEwan, eds., Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government (1991). Katharina J. Schreiber, Wari Imperialism in Middle Horizon Peru (1992). TA Tung. Violence after Imperial Collapse: A Study of Cranial Trauma among Late Intermediate Period Burials from the Former Huari Capital, Ayacucho, Peru. Nawpa Pacha. 29:101-118. (2008) External links - Brian Finucane, "Ayacucho Archaeo-Isotope Project" -"Archaeological chemists settle trophy-head debate - "Pre-Incan female Wari mummy unearthed in Peru", Reuters ‰ۢ "A Champion of the Wari," about curator Susan E. Bergh, by Judith H. Dobrzynski, The Wall Street Journal, October 24, 2012 ‰ۢ "Who Was Who in the Middle Horizon Andean Prehistory" by Patricia J. Knobloch (Source Wikipedia)Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Western Artist Ron Stewart, Water Color Painting, "Making up Time" #1081

Western Artist Ron Stewart, Water Color Painting, titled "Making up Time" #1081 Description: #1081 Western Artist Ron Stewart (American; born 1941, Water Color Painting, Titled "Making up Time" . Winter stagecoach scene original western water coloor painting, signed lower left, with scenic Remarque on matte: Condition. Excellent Dimensions: 15 1/2" x 22 1/2". --------- Additional Ron Stewart Paintings can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16492699 and his Bronze work can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16131018 ----------- Ron Stewart is a painter and sculptor of western, historical, wildlife, and animal subjects. He was born in Brooklyn, NY. In the over-crowded field of contemporary western artists, Ron Stewart’s professional achievements have made his work familiar to a wide range of discriminating collectors. Ron is among those who is tied hard and fast to the quality of painting and the historical fidelity of the Old West Masters. The refined artistic abilities, in watercolor, oil, and bronze, are truly distinguished, but Ron brings more to his work than just the technical competence of a western illustrator. The Ron Stewart hallmark is the representation of the mood and the atmosphere appropriate to whatever he approaches. His paintings breathe life into the dusty pages of western history, be it the bawl of longhorn cattle, the war whoop of the red men, or the mountain man in his wilderness solitude. Ron has received awards multiple times at the competitive Death Valley Invitational (5), the George Phippen Memorial (3), and Best of Show, and Best Watercolor at the Pikes Peak National Invitational Show (2), and he also received numerous awards at the Western Artist of America, including three gold medals in Watercolor, two Silver medals in Watercolor, and one Silver medal in Oil, and one Silver medal in Bronze. His work can be seen at Mountain Trail Galleries in Jackson, Wyoming; Signature Gallery, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Santa Fe, NM; Long coat Gallery, Ruidoso, NM; Sanders Gallery, Tucson, AZ; and the Culturalpatina Gallery in Fairfax, VA, which has the largest collection of his work in the world. His life was chronicled in Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West in winter of 1979, Ron and his wife Sharon have resided in Arizona for the last 45 years. Stewart has exhibited throughout the West in juried and group shows, collecting a variety of top awards for his works, including numerous gold and silver medals in oil, watercolor, bronze and drawing. International collections include locations in England, France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Spain, the Philippines, and Japan. ----------------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Native American Navajo Chinle textile, by Annie Tsosie, Ca 1970's, #1108A

Native American Navajo Wide Ruins textile, by Annie Tsosie, Ca 1970's, #1108A Description: #1108 A Native American Navajo Wide Ruins textile, by Annie Tsosie, Ca 1970's, Please note that because of the rug size, the snap is showing only 1/4 of the piece. If you are interested in the piece, please let me know and I will try and get a whole shot for you. Dimension: 76" x 56" Condition: Excellent for its age. Some background on Anniie Tsosie: (FEBRUARY 2, 2011) Annie Mike Tsosie, 78, passed away on Friday, Jan. 28, 2011. Funeral services will be held at 10 a.m. on Thursday, Feb. 3, at Tse Bii Osteel Bible Church in Whitecone. Interment will follow at the Indian Wells Community Cemetery. Annie was born April 15, 1932, in Whitecone/Mike Springs to James and Susie Mike. She was a homemaker all her life, and wove rugs to support her family. She was happily married for 42 years, and was a mother and grandma to many children. She enjoyed going to her grandkids’ basketball games. Annie was full of love and showed you with a big hug every time she greeted you. She opened her doors to anybody who needed help. She supported all her church activities at Tse Bii Otseel Bible Church. Survivors included her husband, Ben Tsosie; four children, Kenneth Parker, Julius Tsosie, Julia Tsosie and Glen Tsosie, all of Whitecone and Indian Wells; five sisters and three brothers; and numerous nephews, nieces and cousins. She was preceded in death by her parents, James and Susie Mike; a daughter, Evelyn Williams; a sister and two brothers. A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700s Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700's Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanche’s, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863–4, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as piñon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weaving's they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880s, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. ________________________________________ Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe originally appeared in The Collector’s Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11 ---------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Native American Vintage Navajo Chinle Storm Pattern Weaving by Nancy

Native American Navajo Chinle Storm Pattern Weaving by Nancy Etsitty, Ca 1970's, #1219 Description: #1219 Native American Navajo Chinle Storm Pattern Weaving by Nancy Etsitty, Ca 1970's, Very fine weave, vibrant colors. Dimensions: 34.5” x 49”. Condition: Very Good. A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weavings are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weavings are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breechcloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700s Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700s Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863–4, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggressions against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weavings in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890s, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as piñon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest railhead and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weavings they thought more attractive to non-lndian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880s, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. ________________________________________ Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico , Santa Fe Originally appeared in The Collector’s Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11Read more

  • USAUSA
  • Dealer

Blog posts about "Cultural Patina"

Realised prices "Cultural Patina "

Find address and telephone number to Cultural Patina

Advert