Cultural Patina

Cultural Patina provides a platform for people to access global high quality art, easily. Since their establishment in 2014 owner Dennis has managed to collect a plethora of pottery, sculptures, textiles, jewellery from across the globe and the second largest accumulation of original Naga Indian art in US.

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Objects "Cultural Patina"

Naga : Authentic Rare Konyak Naga Chief's Wife Beaded Body Cloth #614

Naga Authentic Rare Konyak Naga Chief's Wife Beaded Body Cloth 614. Authentic rare Konyak Naga chief's wife beaded body cloth. The piece has a small repair made by the wearer a long time ago. Rare textile limited to Konyak ang's (chief's) wife. With extensive beadwork along length of textile on top and bottom. Even more rare pieces have Job's tears seeds and brass discs additionally. The piece is 36 inches wide and 72 inches long, and is in excellent condition for its use and age which is the early to mid 19th century. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5. (Times of India), Naga, Authentic Rare Konyak Naga Chief's Wife Beaded Body Cloth, 614. Authentic rare Konyak Naga chief's wife beaded body cloth. The piece has a small repair made by the wearer a long time ago. Rare textile limited to Konyak ang's (chief's) wife. With extensive beadwork along length of textile on top and bottom. Even more rare pieces have Job's tears seeds and brass discs additionally. The piece is 36 inches wide and 72 inches long, and is in excellent condition for its use and age which is the early to mid 19th century. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture, The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are:, Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line), Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1], Further reading, Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5. (Times of India)Read more

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Acoma Pottery : Native American Acoma Pottery Bowl, by Navin Yessiltn #142

Acoma Pottery 142. Description: 1980's hand made and painted poly chrome geometric design with minor rubs signed by Navin Yessiltn and logo, with dimensions of 8" x 4.5". Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clay's gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and poly chrome a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce un-decorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art.. (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona), Acoma Pottery, 142. Description: 1980's hand made and painted poly chrome geometric design with minor rubs signed by Navin Yessiltn and logo, with dimensions of 8" x 4.5". Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clay's gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and poly chrome a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce un-decorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art.. (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona)Read more

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Pottery Bowl : Excellent Native American Maricopa Bowl #214

Native American Maricopa Pottery Bowl 214. Description: Maricopa bowl, painted in red, cream and black colors, with geometric designs, rim atop. Diameter: 6.75 inches; Height: 4.75 inches. Ex. Orlando, Florida collection. Condition: Very good condition. In 1937 to 1940, Maricopa Pottery experienced a revival due to the encouragement of Elizabeth Hart. Elizabeth Hart was a United States Home Extension Agent that noted that the previous pottery pieces (1912 to 1937) showed a decline in craftsmanship. The vessels were poor quality, lopsided and/or lumpy clay, with unevenly spaced designs. The pieces of this time period were a product of tourism, a demand for a cheap low-quality souvenir. On Elizabeth Hart's urging and by the leadership of one of the top potters of the time: Ida Redbird, Maricopa pottery started receiving publicity and support from local museums. The improved product, thin walled and symmetrical allowed the potters to increase their earnings. Through this revival the "Maricopa Pottery Cooperative" developed, with Ida Redbird as the president of 17 to 19 other Maricopa potters. At Hart's urging, it was at this time that the potters also started signing their wares for individual recognition and credit. So, any Maricopa pottery piece that has a signature and/or hallmark was made somewhere between 1937 to present. A vessel that has no signature and/or hallmark was either made prior to 1937 OR the potter forgot to sign the piece. Swastikas were a common design used in Maricopa pottery until 1941. The swastika symbol, for the Maricopa's, represents the four sacred directions, coordinates of the universe, the wheel of life, the supreme deity. Due to World War II the symbol lost it's popularity with the tourists so the design was no longer used. When Mary Fernald inquired as to the meaning of other designs used, both Mabel Sunn and Ida Redbird agreed that there is no meaning behind most all of the decorations. However, frogs may have symbolized rain. All the Maricopa potters had their favorite designs and symbols, but all were free to borrow from someone else's designs. Despite the borrowing and combination of styles, many times the artist's hand is still individual enough for identification without signature. Some vessels have a whitish film on them, this has been linked to salty clay usage. If the slip is flaking off it probably is due to the slip being applied to heavily all at once. The slip adheres better to the clay if applied in layers to the desired thickness. The slip can also flake if it had been rubbed to hard with a stone. Maricopa pottery is Paddle and Anvil made. There is no temper in their decorated pots, however they did add temper to cookware's. Cookware's were made from a different clay source, they were longer fired and had sand temper added for durability. (Source: rarepottery.info), Native American, Maricopa Pottery Bowl, 214. Description: Maricopa bowl, painted in red, cream and black colors, with geometric designs, rim atop. Diameter: 6.75 inches; Height: 4.75 inches. Ex. Orlando, Florida collection. Condition: Very good condition. In 1937 to 1940, Maricopa Pottery experienced a revival due to the encouragement of Elizabeth Hart. Elizabeth Hart was a United States Home Extension Agent that noted that the previous pottery pieces (1912 to 1937) showed a decline in craftsmanship. The vessels were poor quality, lopsided and/or lumpy clay, with unevenly spaced designs. The pieces of this time period were a product of tourism, a demand for a cheap low-quality souvenir. On Elizabeth Hart's urging and by the leadership of one of the top potters of the time: Ida Redbird, Maricopa pottery started receiving publicity and support from local museums. The improved product, thin walled and symmetrical allowed the potters to increase their earnings. Through this revival the "Maricopa Pottery Cooperative" developed, with Ida Redbird as the president of 17 to 19 other Maricopa potters. At Hart's urging, it was at this time that the potters also started signing their wares for individual recognition and credit. So, any Maricopa pottery piece that has a signature and/or hallmark was made somewhere between 1937 to present. A vessel that has no signature and/or hallmark was either made prior to 1937 OR the potter forgot to sign the piece. Swastikas were a common design used in Maricopa pottery until 1941. The swastika symbol, for the Maricopa's, represents the four sacred directions, coordinates of the universe, the wheel of life, the supreme deity. Due to World War II the symbol lost it's popularity with the tourists so the design was no longer used. When Mary Fernald inquired as to the meaning of other designs used, both Mabel Sunn and Ida Redbird agreed that there is no meaning behind most all of the decorations. However, frogs may have symbolized rain. All the Maricopa potters had their favorite designs and symbols, but all were free to borrow from someone else's designs. Despite the borrowing and combination of styles, many times the artist's hand is still individual enough for identification without signature. Some vessels have a whitish film on them, this has been linked to salty clay usage. If the slip is flaking off it probably is due to the slip being applied to heavily all at once. The slip adheres better to the clay if applied in layers to the desired thickness. The slip can also flake if it had been rubbed to hard with a stone. Maricopa pottery is Paddle and Anvil made. There is no temper in their decorated pots, however they did add temper to cookware's. Cookware's were made from a different clay source, they were longer fired and had sand temper added for durability. (Source: rarepottery.info)Read more

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Canteen : Native American Zia Polchrome Bird Design Canteen, signed

Canteen 127. Description: 1960's 70s polychrome bird design signed Sofia Medina and dimensions are 6"x 6"x 4.5". Sofia Medina and Lois Medina are a mother and daughter team which with combined efforts produce some of the finest Zia Pueblo pottery around today. Sofia was born in 1932 and Lois was born in 1959. Sofia has been making pottery since 1963. Trinidad Medina, who was a prolific and one of Zia's finest potter‰۪s, taught her all the fundamentals of making traditional Zia pottery and encouraged her to continue the long lived family tradition of hand coiling pottery. Sofia and Lois specialize in making hand coiled Zia pottery just like their ancestors before them. All the materials used on their pottery come from within the Zia Pueblo. The clay is gathered from the grounds within the pueblo. They clean, mix, hand coil, shape, paint, and fire the pottery the traditional way, outdoors. The colors are derived from natural plant life and minerals also found within the Zia Pueblo. They both contribute equally while constructing their pottery. Trinidad encouraged Sofia to teach each and every one of her children the art of hand coiling traditional Zia pottery, so they may be able to contribute to the legacy which is bestowed upon them as well. Sofia & Lois said, Spiritually, making pottery eases your mind, and we sing and pray while making our pottery. They sign their pottery as: Sofia Medina-Lois Medina, Zia. Unfortunately, Sofia passed away recently. They are related to Marcellus Medina and Herman Medina (sons/brothers). Publications: -Southern Pueblo Pottery 2,000 Artist Biographies -Fourteen Families in Pueblo Pottery -Southwestern Pottery Anasazi to Zuni -Talking with the Clay Awards: -Santa Fe Indian Market -New Mexico State Fair -Eighth Northern Arts & Crafts Show Collections: -Albuquerque International Airport -Smithsonian in Washington, D.C.(Source: Indian Artists of New Mexico.) Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clay's gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and poly chrome a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce un-decorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art. (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona), Canteen, 127. Description: 1960's 70s polychrome bird design signed Sofia Medina and dimensions are 6"x 6"x 4.5". Sofia Medina and Lois Medina are a mother and daughter team which with combined efforts produce some of the finest Zia Pueblo pottery around today. Sofia was born in 1932 and Lois was born in 1959. Sofia has been making pottery since 1963. Trinidad Medina, who was a prolific and one of Zia's finest potter‰۪s, taught her all the fundamentals of making traditional Zia pottery and encouraged her to continue the long lived family tradition of hand coiling pottery. Sofia and Lois specialize in making hand coiled Zia pottery just like their ancestors before them. All the materials used on their pottery come from within the Zia Pueblo. The clay is gathered from the grounds within the pueblo. They clean, mix, hand coil, shape, paint, and fire the pottery the traditional way, outdoors. The colors are derived from natural plant life and minerals also found within the Zia Pueblo. They both contribute equally while constructing their pottery. Trinidad encouraged Sofia to teach each and every one of her children the art of hand coiling traditional Zia pottery, so they may be able to contribute to the legacy which is bestowed upon them as well. Sofia & Lois said, Spiritually, making pottery eases your mind, and we sing and pray while making our pottery. They sign their pottery as: Sofia Medina-Lois Medina, Zia. Unfortunately, Sofia passed away recently. They are related to Marcellus Medina and Herman Medina (sons/brothers). Publications: -Southern Pueblo Pottery 2,000 Artist Biographies -Fourteen Families in Pueblo Pottery -Southwestern Pottery Anasazi to Zuni -Talking with the Clay Awards: -Santa Fe Indian Market -New Mexico State Fair -Eighth Northern Arts & Crafts Show Collections: -Albuquerque International Airport -Smithsonian in Washington, D.C.(Source: Indian Artists of New Mexico.), Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clay's gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and poly chrome a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce un-decorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art. (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona)Read more

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Ron Stewart Oil, "Path of the Ancient Ones" Signed #701

Western Painting 701. Description: Listed Western Painter Ron Stewart Oil Painting, "Path of the Ancient Ones". Purchased from Ron Directly, in June, 2014. Shows two Indians riding past a large boulder covered in petroglyphs from the past. Dimensions: 12 x 9 inches. Condition: The piece is in excellent condition and was painted in 2014. Additional Ron Stewart Paintings can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16492699 and his Bronze work can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16131018 Ron Stewart is a painter and sculptor of western, historical, wildlife, and animal subjects. He was born in Brooklyn, NY. In the over-crowded field of contemporary western artists, Ron Stewart's professional achievements have made his work familiar to a wide range of discriminating collectors. Ron is among those who is tied hard and fast to the quality of painting and the historical fidelity of the Old West Masters. The refined artistic abilities, in watercolor, oil, and bronze, are truly distinguished, but Ron brings more to his work than just the technical competence of a western illustrator. The Ron Stewart hallmark is the representation of the mood and the atmosphere appropriate to whatever he approaches. His paintings breathe life into the dusty pages of western history, be it the bawl of longhorn cattle, the war whoop of the red men, or the mountain man in his wilderness solitude. Ron has received awards multiple times at the competitive Death Valley Invitational (5), the George Phippen Memorial (3), and Best of Show, and Best Watercolor at the Pikes Peak National Invitational Show (2), and he also received numerous awards at the Western Artist of America, including three gold medals in Watercolor, two Silver medals in Watercolor, and one Silver medal in Oil, and one Silver medal in Bronze. His work can be seen at Mountain Trail Galleries in Jackson, Wyoming; Signature Gallery, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Santa Fe, NM; Long coat Gallery, Ruidoso, NM; Sanders Gallery, Tucson, AZ; and the Culturalpatina Gallery in Fairfax, VA. His life was chronicled in Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West in winter of 1979, Ron and his wife Sharon have resided in Arizona for the last 45 years. Stewart has exhibited throughout the West in juried and group shows, collecting a variety of top awards for his works, including numerous gold and silver medals in oil, watercolor, bronze and drawing. International collections include locations in England, France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Spain, the Philippines, and Japan. View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:, Western Painting, 701. Description: Listed Western Painter Ron Stewart Oil Painting, "Path of the Ancient Ones". Purchased from Ron Directly, in June, 2014. Shows two Indians riding past a large boulder covered in petroglyphs from the past. Dimensions: 12 x 9 inches. Condition: The piece is in excellent condition and was painted in 2014. Additional Ron Stewart Paintings can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16492699 and his Bronze work can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16131018 Ron Stewart is a painter and sculptor of western, historical, wildlife, and animal subjects. He was born in Brooklyn, NY. In the over-crowded field of contemporary western artists, Ron Stewart's professional achievements have made his work familiar to a wide range of discriminating collectors. Ron is among those who is tied hard and fast to the quality of painting and the historical fidelity of the Old West Masters. The refined artistic abilities, in watercolor, oil, and bronze, are truly distinguished, but Ron brings more to his work than just the technical competence of a western illustrator. The Ron Stewart hallmark is the representation of the mood and the atmosphere appropriate to whatever he approaches. His paintings breathe life into the dusty pages of western history, be it the bawl of longhorn cattle, the war whoop of the red men, or the mountain man in his wilderness solitude. Ron has received awards multiple times at the competitive Death Valley Invitational (5), the George Phippen Memorial (3), and Best of Show, and Best Watercolor at the Pikes Peak National Invitational Show (2), and he also received numerous awards at the Western Artist of America, including three gold medals in Watercolor, two Silver medals in Watercolor, and one Silver medal in Oil, and one Silver medal in Bronze. His work can be seen at Mountain Trail Galleries in Jackson, Wyoming; Signature Gallery, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Santa Fe, NM; Long coat Gallery, Ruidoso, NM; Sanders Gallery, Tucson, AZ; and the Culturalpatina Gallery in Fairfax, VA. His life was chronicled in Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West in winter of 1979, Ron and his wife Sharon have resided in Arizona for the last 45 years. Stewart has exhibited throughout the West in juried and group shows, collecting a variety of top awards for his works, including numerous gold and silver medals in oil, watercolor, bronze and drawing. International collections include locations in England, France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Spain, the Philippines, and Japan. View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

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Native American, Vintage Navajo Wide Ruins Weaving, Ca 1970's # 1085

Native American, Vintage Navajo Wide Ruins Weaving, Ca 1970's Description: # 1085 Native American, Vintage Navajo Wide Ruins Weaving, Ca 1970's. Very heavy weave, great piece for the floor. Condition: In good condition. Dimensions: approximately 59" x 83" A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700's Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700's Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanche’s, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863–4, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as piñon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weaving's they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880s, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe originally appeared in The Collector’s Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11 View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnav, Native American, Vintage Navajo Wide Ruins Weaving, Ca 1970's Description: # 1085 Native American, Vintage Navajo Wide Ruins Weaving, Ca 1970's. Very heavy weave, great piece for the floor. Condition: In good condition. Dimensions: approximately 59" x 83" A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700's Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700's Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanche’s, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863–4, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as piñon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weaving's they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880s, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe originally appeared in The Collector’s Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11 View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavRead more

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Large Navajo Rug : Excellent Very Large Navajo Yei Weaving #96-

Large Navajo Rug 96. Description: Navajo Yei Weaving. 7'5" x 6'1" pictorial weaving with four Yei figures and two corn stalks within a latch hook border. Circa 1950's. Excellent Condition. The photo is only of 1/4 of the rug given it's size. A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible. There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700's Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700s Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as pinon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weaving's they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880's, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico , Santa Fe Originally appeared in The Collector's Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11, Large Navajo Rug, 96. Description: Navajo Yei Weaving. 7'5" x 6'1" pictorial weaving with four Yei figures and two corn stalks within a latch hook border. Circa 1950's. Excellent Condition. The photo is only of 1/4 of the rug given it's size. , A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible. There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700's Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700s Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each.", Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as pinon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weaving's they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880's, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico , Santa Fe Originally appeared in The Collector's Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11Read more

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Bronze Sculpture, "Global Tree of Life" by Lincoln Fox (1942-), #1

Bronze Sculpture, "Global Tree of Life", By Lincoln Fox, 1994 852. Description; Bronze sculpture entitled "Tree of Life" by Lincoln Fox ( 1942-), 1994. This is edition #1 of 5 (out of an original planned 10) maquettes of the "Global Family Tree of Life" Lincoln made these in preparation for the 32 Foot Global Family "Tree of Life" displayed, at the 1994 International Park in Nagoya, Japan. These initial studies were primarily made for several dignitaries associated with the project. One was originally given to the Queen of Jordon, another to Dr. Brown of the UNEP, Two currently reside with Culturalpatina, and the 5th is unaccounted for. The last 5 were never cast. Dimensions: The materials are cast bronze using the lost wax method, mounted on polished cut granite and routed oak along the bottom. 21-3/4" H x 17-3/4" W x 17-1/2" D. The overall weight of approximately 60 pounds. Condition: Excellent condition considering the age of the piece. Lincoln sent me a letter on the " Global Tree of Life" and I thought it was important for folks who might be interested in this piece to have. I had tears in my eyes by the time I finished reading this letter. "Since the beginnings of time, man has revered the tree as a universal metaphor of life. Tree imagery flows throughout legends and myths of every culture and many religions. The tree of Life was chosen as the symbol of the UNEP, because it represents the lungs of our planet and gives us the breath of life. Our tree icon symbolizes the nurturing aspects of life so beautifully exemplified in living trees. The emotions invoked are of gentle respect for the earth and the family of man. Each continent shows the various races populating it. The faces selected will express our beautiful uniqueness and unity, with special attention to indigenous peoples. The open ocean spaces between the continents allow visitors to enter the earth's interior. Mythological etchings and icons from many cultural and historical periods-from the cave man to the foot print of the first man on the moon-will be inside the continents. The chamber will honor the highest aspirations of man. Earth mothers representing our four primary races are seated where earth meets sky. As the tree trunk rises from the earth, stylized human figures spiral upward reaching the heavens. Our greatest desire, is for our viewers, thinking on this tree to see we are intimately and inseparably connected with the fabric of nature and that WHEN ANY ONE MAN, ANIMAL OR TREE IS HARMED, ALL MEN SUFFER. Lincoln Fox Sculptor, Tree of Life Foundation" Biography from the Archives of askART: A sculptor in traditional style of Indian figures, Lincoln Fox combines his interest in Indian culture with his belief in the sacredness of the spirits of human beings. His subjects include Shaman with Bear skull Headdress, Shaman with Owl, Bird Vision, and Hopi Snake Priest. One of his largest pieces is The Dream of Flight, 14-feet long and cantilevered 30 degrees so that it appears to fly above the ground at the Albuquerque, New Mexico Airport. Fox was born in Morrilton, Arkansas, and settled in 1971 in Alto, New Mexico. As a youngster, he was disinterested in school, but did well once he began studying art in college. He focused on studying works of famous sculptors that he admired. In 1966, he earned a BFA from the University of Texas at Austin, studying with Charles Umlaf. He then studied with Heri Barscht at the University of Dallas, earning an MA degree, and in 1968, he received an MFA from the University of Kansas at Lawrence, where Elden Teftt was his teacher. He found that once he added an element of distortion to the figures he depicted that he had arrived at the method and style most satisfactory to him. "Exaggeration and distortion make the art exciting. After that discovery, I had twice as much fun. I let things happen". (Samuels 192). Biography from The Adobe Fine Art: After living in New Mexico for over twenty years, Lincoln and his wife, Rachelle, moved to the Western Slope of Colorado in 1990. Orchards, vineyards and ranches surround his studio, in a valley of snow-capped mountains. The area's beauty and tranquility provide inspiration for his creativity. Lincoln holds two master's degrees, and continues private studies in Europe, the Mediterranean, the Mid-East, and Africa. He has been honored with one-man shows at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., the Kennedy Galleries in New York City, and many museums and galleries across the nation. Lincoln has been a member of the National Sculpture Society in New York since 1982. Some of his sculpture commissions include a 17' piece for the Albuquerque International Airport; an 18' piece for the Fine Arts Museum of Albuquerque; a 23' piece for a university in Texas; and a 14' piece near Montgomery, Alabama, dedicated by President George Bush. The Global Family Tree of Life, sanctioned by the United Nations (U.N.E.P.), is four stories tall. The Japanese prefecture of Aishi commissioned a 32-foot study, cast in metal-reinforced F.R.P. to be shown at their International Park Festival, held in Nagoya, Japan. Lincoln's powerful modeling reveals the "breath of life" in his work. Sources include: Who's Who in American Art, 2003-2004 Peggy and Harold Samuels, Contemporary Western Artists Donald Martin Reynolds, Masters of American Sculpture, Bronze Sculpture, "Global Tree of Life", By Lincoln Fox, 1994 852. Description; Bronze sculpture entitled "Tree of Life" by Lincoln Fox ( 1942-), 1994. This is edition #1 of 5 (out of an original planned 10) maquettes of the "Global Family Tree of Life" Lincoln made these in preparation for the 32 Foot Global Family "Tree of Life" displayed, at the 1994 International Park in Nagoya, Japan. These initial studies were primarily made for several dignitaries associated with the project. One was originally given to the Queen of Jordon, another to Dr. Brown of the UNEP, Two currently reside with Culturalpatina, and the 5th is unaccounted for. The last 5 were never cast. Dimensions: The materials are cast bronze using the lost wax method, mounted on polished cut granite and routed oak along the bottom. 21-3/4" H x 17-3/4" W x 17-1/2" D. The overall weight of approximately 60 pounds. Condition: Excellent condition considering the age of the piece. Lincoln sent me a letter on the " Global Tree of Life" and I thought it was important for folks who might be interested in this piece to have. I had tears in my eyes by the time I finished reading this letter. "Since the beginnings of time, man has revered the tree as a universal metaphor of life. Tree imagery flows throughout legends and myths of every culture and many religions. The tree of Life was chosen as the symbol of the UNEP, because it represents the lungs of our planet and gives us the breath of life. Our tree icon symbolizes the nurturing aspects of life so beautifully exemplified in living trees. The emotions invoked are of gentle respect for the earth and the family of man. Each continent shows the various races populating it. The faces selected will express our beautiful uniqueness and unity, with special attention to indigenous peoples. The open ocean spaces between the continents allow visitors to enter the earth's interior. Mythological etchings and icons from many cultural and historical periods-from the cave man to the foot print of the first man on the moon-will be inside the continents. The chamber will honor the highest aspirations of man. Earth mothers representing our four primary races are seated where earth meets sky. As the tree trunk rises from the earth, stylized human figures spiral upward reaching the heavens. Our greatest desire, is for our viewers, thinking on this tree to see we are intimately and inseparably connected with the fabric of nature and that WHEN ANY ONE MAN, ANIMAL OR TREE IS HARMED, ALL MEN SUFFER. Lincoln Fox Sculptor, Tree of Life Foundation" Biography from the Archives of askART: A sculptor in traditional style of Indian figures, Lincoln Fox combines his interest in Indian culture with his belief in the sacredness of the spirits of human beings. His subjects include Shaman with Bear skull Headdress, Shaman with Owl, Bird Vision, and Hopi Snake Priest. One of his largest pieces is The Dream of Flight, 14-feet long and cantilevered 30 degrees so that it appears to fly above the ground at the Albuquerque, New Mexico Airport. Fox was born in Morrilton, Arkansas, and settled in 1971 in Alto, New Mexico. As a youngster, he was disinterested in school, but did well once he began studying art in college. He focused on studying works of famous sculptors that he admired. In 1966, he earned a BFA from the University of Texas at Austin, studying with Charles Umlaf. He then studied with Heri Barscht at the University of Dallas, earning an MA degree, and in 1968, he received an MFA from the University of Kansas at Lawrence, where Elden Teftt was his teacher. He found that once he added an element of distortion to the figures he depicted that he had arrived at the method and style most satisfactory to him. "Exaggeration and distortion make the art exciting. After that discovery, I had twice as much fun. I let things happen". (Samuels 192). Biography from The Adobe Fine Art: After living in New Mexico for over twenty years, Lincoln and his wife, Rachelle, moved to the Western Slope of Colorado in 1990. Orchards, vineyards and ranches surround his studio, in a valley of snow-capped mountains. The area's beauty and tranquility provide inspiration for his creativity. Lincoln holds two master's degrees, and continues private studies in Europe, the Mediterranean, the Mid-East, and Africa. He has been honored with one-man shows at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., the Kennedy Galleries in New York City, and many museums and galleries across the nation. Lincoln has been a member of the National Sculpture Society in New York since 1982. Some of his sculpture commissions include a 17' piece for the Albuquerque International Airport; an 18' piece for the Fine Arts Museum of Albuquerque; a 23' piece for a university in Texas; and a 14' piece near Montgomery, Alabama, dedicated by President George Bush. The Global Family Tree of Life, sanctioned by the United Nations (U.N.E.P.), is four stories tall. The Japanese prefecture of Aishi commissioned a 32-foot study, cast in metal-reinforced F.R.P. to be shown at their International Park Festival, held in Nagoya, Japan. Lincoln's powerful modeling reveals the "breath of life" in his work. Sources include: Who's Who in American Art, 2003-2004 Peggy and Harold Samuels, Contemporary Western Artists Donald Martin Reynolds, Masters of American SculptureRead more

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Native American Large Pima Basket Bowl, Ca 1950's #817

Native American Large Pima Basket Bowl 817. Native American Large Pima Basket Bowl having undulating geometric designs and dark center with radiating forms. Dimensions: Height 6 x diameter 18 1/2 inches. Condition: Excellent for its age. Basket making was one of the earliest skills developed since baskets were needed for carrying goods, for storage, for trapping and fishing, and for religious ceremonies. Unlike pottery, baskets do not survive for extended periods of time. Most that are available today were constructed in the last 120 years, particularly after native people in the Southwest began to make baskets with the idea of selling them and moved baskets into the category of artistic collectibles. Those made between 1880 and 1930 tend to be the most valuable, particularly if they are in good condition, well-made, and have an interesting design, but these latter factors can make any basket desirable. One can quickly summarize baskets by type and construction, but the strongest interest has been in understanding tribal variations since different tribes used different materials, different construction styles, different quality and particularly different decorations. As a result, the following offers some general comments on the first two issues and then seeks greater detail on tribal variation. Types Trays and bowls are the most common forms, but there are a few unusual types of baskets: Ollas (prounced "oy-yuh" , a Spanish word meaning jar with a neck and mouth) This Olla shape was conducive to storing grain with less spillage. Burden baskets are simply designed to ease the burden of a heavy load. Many hang over the head and rest on the person’s back. The conical shape conforms to a person’s back and evenly distributes the load’s weight. The Apache ones add tin cones that are noisy and seem effective in scaring away snakes. Plaques are flat and often are used for decoration. They are commonly made by the Hopi. Cradle boards are another form of basket that is used to carry a child supported against a stiff board. The child is tightly wrapped against the board giving a sense of security and freeing the person carrying the child to do other things with her hands. Again, decoration became more important as they became collectibles. Water jugs were covered with pitch so the basket would hold liquids. Carrying liquid in a coated basket makes the burden much lighter than what it would be if the liquid were carried in pottery. CONSTRUCTION: There are a small number of basic methods for making baskets, but each option can be varied based on materials and factors like the thickness of the stitch or by varying over and under patterns. The most common type of basket construction is coiling in which a larger substance called the warp is coiled in circles starting at the center. A thinner material called the weft is stitched around the coils to hold them in place and can add decoration. Sometimes, the thick material is actually a bundle of thin material like grass. The coil is spiraled outward and, unless the intent is a plaque, upward. This method offers more strength and more opportunity for decoration. Greater stability results from using a warp of multiple thick rods that are stitched together. supports together. The thinner materials that are wrapped over and under the supports again provide decoration. The weaver can shift the direction or use three stands instead of two or pass over two rods instead of one to vary the appearance and make a design. Diagonal twining involves having the wefts go around two rods at a time but shifting which two on each row. In other words, on the first row, the weft would be wrapped around rods 1 and 2, 3 and 4, etc. On the next row, they would be wrapped around 2 and 3, then 4 and 5, etc. A decorative element can be wrapped around the outside wefts to create an impression that is called false embroidery. Plaiting requires the use of flat strips that are woven over and under each other. Often, the strips are placed in a diagonal pattern. Again, it is common to add variations like over one and under two. A mixture of variations adds to the design. This style tends to be easier than the other two and creates stronger, more rigid baskets. Plaiting was also used to build traps, fences and the like. Wicker is similar to plaiting but uses round materials with one of the sets being thicker and adding stability to the material. Often the thicker material is less visible or completely covered by the thinner material. Wicker is similar to plaiting but uses round materials with one of the sets being thicker and adding stability to the material. Often the thicker material is less visible or completely covered by the thinner material. Preparing the materials for weaving often takes longer than the weaving itself. Once appropriate materials were located, they had to be cut, cleaned, and then split or peeled since the natural material tended to be too thick for the wefts. The weaver usually needs to use her or his teeth for the splitting and peeling. During weaving, the materials were often dampened so that the weave would get tighter as it dried. TRIBAL CHARACTERISTICS: The most valuable baskets are those made by the Apache and Yavapai. Both tribes traveled a lot probably making well-built baskets more important, but, in the latter part of the 1800s, the two groups were forced onto the same reservation in the desert near San Carlos. In this unpleasant harsh life, the women had a chance to share techniques although both groups maintained their own style. After they were allowed to return to reservations in their more traditional areas, both groups recognized that they could generate a modest income by selling their baskets and production increased. APACHE: Earlier Apache baskets were usually coiled and used three rods for the warp making these baskets very sturdy and stiff. By 1930, production of these baskets declined as children were forced into schools that did not teach basket making and older members of the tribe were pressured into other work. The basket making skills seemed to die out for a decade and were eventually replaced by making of simpler single coil ones. Burden baskets were often twined instead of coiled with twining particularly common for the Mescalero tribe. Apache baskets tend to use contrasting colors and geometric or pictorial designs. The traditional ones are very sturdy [because of the three coils] and the external weft is usually willow with material from devils claw seed bags for the dark color. The willow tends to start as an off white but ages to a golden tan or light brown. A sun-burnt willow that is darker and reddish was sometimes used for decoration. Dark red yucca root was also used for design work in rare occasions. Those baskets that added an extra color are called polychrome. Newer baskets sometimes were twined and used a greater variety of materials including cottonwood, berry bushes, and sumac as well as willow. Dyes became more common for adding color, but the basic color is lighter than in those that have aged. Apache designs are less symmetrical and, at times, seemed cluttered. They frequently include figures (human, dog, deer, and snake). Weavers suggest that it is helpful to let the basket talk to them and tell them the design rather than planning it ahead of time. As a result, there is less consistency in weave as well as design but such variation can add interest. The use of devil’s claw has declined in modern Apache designs. (Source: Smoki museum) View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:, Native American Large Pima Basket Bowl 817. Native American Large Pima Basket Bowl having undulating geometric designs and dark center with radiating forms. Dimensions: Height 6 x diameter 18 1/2 inches. Condition: Excellent for its age. Basket making was one of the earliest skills developed since baskets were needed for carrying goods, for storage, for trapping and fishing, and for religious ceremonies. Unlike pottery, baskets do not survive for extended periods of time. Most that are available today were constructed in the last 120 years, particularly after native people in the Southwest began to make baskets with the idea of selling them and moved baskets into the category of artistic collectibles. Those made between 1880 and 1930 tend to be the most valuable, particularly if they are in good condition, well-made, and have an interesting design, but these latter factors can make any basket desirable. One can quickly summarize baskets by type and construction, but the strongest interest has been in understanding tribal variations since different tribes used different materials, different construction styles, different quality and particularly different decorations. As a result, the following offers some general comments on the first two issues and then seeks greater detail on tribal variation. Types Trays and bowls are the most common forms, but there are a few unusual types of baskets: Ollas (prounced "oy-yuh" , a Spanish word meaning jar with a neck and mouth) This Olla shape was conducive to storing grain with less spillage. Burden baskets are simply designed to ease the burden of a heavy load. Many hang over the head and rest on the person’s back. The conical shape conforms to a person’s back and evenly distributes the load’s weight. The Apache ones add tin cones that are noisy and seem effective in scaring away snakes. Plaques are flat and often are used for decoration. They are commonly made by the Hopi. Cradle boards are another form of basket that is used to carry a child supported against a stiff board. The child is tightly wrapped against the board giving a sense of security and freeing the person carrying the child to do other things with her hands. Again, decoration became more important as they became collectibles. Water jugs were covered with pitch so the basket would hold liquids. Carrying liquid in a coated basket makes the burden much lighter than what it would be if the liquid were carried in pottery. CONSTRUCTION: There are a small number of basic methods for making baskets, but each option can be varied based on materials and factors like the thickness of the stitch or by varying over and under patterns. The most common type of basket construction is coiling in which a larger substance called the warp is coiled in circles starting at the center. A thinner material called the weft is stitched around the coils to hold them in place and can add decoration. Sometimes, the thick material is actually a bundle of thin material like grass. The coil is spiraled outward and, unless the intent is a plaque, upward. This method offers more strength and more opportunity for decoration. Greater stability results from using a warp of multiple thick rods that are stitched together. supports together. The thinner materials that are wrapped over and under the supports again provide decoration. The weaver can shift the direction or use three stands instead of two or pass over two rods instead of one to vary the appearance and make a design. Diagonal twining involves having the wefts go around two rods at a time but shifting which two on each row. In other words, on the first row, the weft would be wrapped around rods 1 and 2, 3 and 4, etc. On the next row, they would be wrapped around 2 and 3, then 4 and 5, etc. A decorative element can be wrapped around the outside wefts to create an impression that is called false embroidery. Plaiting requires the use of flat strips that are woven over and under each other. Often, the strips are placed in a diagonal pattern. Again, it is common to add variations like over one and under two. A mixture of variations adds to the design. This style tends to be easier than the other two and creates stronger, more rigid baskets. Plaiting was also used to build traps, fences and the like. Wicker is similar to plaiting but uses round materials with one of the sets being thicker and adding stability to the material. Often the thicker material is less visible or completely covered by the thinner material. Wicker is similar to plaiting but uses round materials with one of the sets being thicker and adding stability to the material. Often the thicker material is less visible or completely covered by the thinner material. Preparing the materials for weaving often takes longer than the weaving itself. Once appropriate materials were located, they had to be cut, cleaned, and then split or peeled since the natural material tended to be too thick for the wefts. The weaver usually needs to use her or his teeth for the splitting and peeling. During weaving, the materials were often dampened so that the weave would get tighter as it dried. TRIBAL CHARACTERISTICS: The most valuable baskets are those made by the Apache and Yavapai. Both tribes traveled a lot probably making well-built baskets more important, but, in the latter part of the 1800s, the two groups were forced onto the same reservation in the desert near San Carlos. In this unpleasant harsh life, the women had a chance to share techniques although both groups maintained their own style. After they were allowed to return to reservations in their more traditional areas, both groups recognized that they could generate a modest income by selling their baskets and production increased. APACHE: Earlier Apache baskets were usually coiled and used three rods for the warp making these baskets very sturdy and stiff. By 1930, production of these baskets declined as children were forced into schools that did not teach basket making and older members of the tribe were pressured into other work. The basket making skills seemed to die out for a decade and were eventually replaced by making of simpler single coil ones. Burden baskets were often twined instead of coiled with twining particularly common for the Mescalero tribe. Apache baskets tend to use contrasting colors and geometric or pictorial designs. The traditional ones are very sturdy [because of the three coils] and the external weft is usually willow with material from devils claw seed bags for the dark color. The willow tends to start as an off white but ages to a golden tan or light brown. A sun-burnt willow that is darker and reddish was sometimes used for decoration. Dark red yucca root was also used for design work in rare occasions. Those baskets that added an extra color are called polychrome. Newer baskets sometimes were twined and used a greater variety of materials including cottonwood, berry bushes, and sumac as well as willow. Dyes became more common for adding color, but the basic color is lighter than in those that have aged. Apache designs are less symmetrical and, at times, seemed cluttered. They frequently include figures (human, dog, deer, and snake). Weavers suggest that it is helpful to let the basket talk to them and tell them the design rather than planning it ahead of time. As a result, there is less consistency in weave as well as design but such variation can add interest. The use of devil’s claw has declined in modern Apache designs. (Source: Smoki museum) View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

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Mexican Pottery :Reproduction Casas Grande Pottery, Casas Grande Pottery

Mexico Pottery 714. Reproduction CASAS GRANDES POTTERY - Seated Man Effigy Bowl with lightning decoration on back, the man holds a hand to one cheek. From a Michigan museum Dimension: 7 x 6.5 inches. Condition: Good Condition for its age and use. Provenance: This piece came from the THE NANCY PRINCE COLLECTION Nancy Prince, art educator, artist, antique dealer, and published author, has been a collector of Native American art and respected member of the antiques community for over 45 years. Items from her extensive collections have been displayed in Native American exhibitions at the University of Maine Hudson Museum in Orono, ME and at the Portland (ME) Historical Society. Born in Quincy, IL and raised in Bronxville, NY, her interest in Native arts began during childhood summer vacations with her aunt, who traveled as a handwork instructor for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. While visiting various reservations, she developed a deep appreciation for the artwork created there. Her art focused education, included courses at Bennington College, Hartford Art School, Silvermine College of Art, and Yale University School of Art & Architecture. Prince began collecting while attending Yale University, and she spent weekends scouring local flea markets for baskets and other Native artwork. After Yale, she made and sold silver and bead jewelry and moonlighted as an antique dealer to supplement her income. At this time, she participated in antique shows in and around New York City, specializing in Native American art. For 15 years, she co-directed an art school in Danbury, CT with her husband, Roger, who is also a listed sculptor. Prince served as a painting and 2-dimensional art instructor, and Roger headed the 3-dimensional art department. She became a full time antiques dealer after moving to Turner, ME in 1990, and, in partnership with Roger, she participated in antique shows throughout New England, New York, California and New Mexico. She also served on the Maine Antique Dealer Association board. After relocating to Portland, ME in 2000, she continued in the antiques trade, and Roger became a full time working sculptor. She has recently retired from the business, and along with Roger is now in the process of moving to Florida. Paquim̩, better known as Casas Grandes, was a major cultural and trade center in the northwestern region of today‰۪s Chihuahua state for hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spanish in northern Mexico. Culturally affiliated in many ways to Mesoamerica to the south, Casa Grandes acted as an intermediary between Central American peoples and the Mogollon and Hohokam peoples to the north. Its area of influence reached from central New Mexico in the north to central Chihuahua in the south. Its peak of development occurred in the 13th and 14th centuries. Trade items included shells, copper, pottery, and macaws. The ruins of Paquim̩ include more than 2000 rooms, indicating the importance of this settlement. Casas Grandes is known for its remarkable pottery. Today, residents of the neighboring village of Mata Ortiz create pottery inspired by Casas Grandes work, and this pottery is in high demand. (Source: university of Texas at El Paso). Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clays gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated‰ÛÓmost frequently with paint and occasionally with appliqu̩. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and polychrome‰ÛÓa number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce undecorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona) View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnav, Mexico Pottery, 714. Reproduction CASAS GRANDES POTTERY - Seated Man Effigy Bowl with lightning decoration on back, the man holds a hand to one cheek. From a Michigan museum, Dimension: 7 x 6.5 inches. Condition: Good Condition for its age and use. Provenance: This piece came from the THE NANCY PRINCE COLLECTION Nancy Prince, art educator, artist, antique dealer, and published author, has been a collector of Native American art and respected member of the antiques community for over 45 years. Items from her extensive collections have been displayed in Native American exhibitions at the University of Maine Hudson Museum in Orono, ME and at the Portland (ME) Historical Society. Born in Quincy, IL and raised in Bronxville, NY, her interest in Native arts began during childhood summer vacations with her aunt, who traveled as a handwork instructor for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. While visiting various reservations, she developed a deep appreciation for the artwork created there. Her art focused education, included courses at Bennington College, Hartford Art School, Silvermine College of Art, and Yale University School of Art & Architecture. Prince began collecting while attending Yale University, and she spent weekends scouring local flea markets for baskets and other Native artwork. After Yale, she made and sold silver and bead jewelry and moonlighted as an antique dealer to supplement her income. At this time, she participated in antique shows in and around New York City, specializing in Native American art. For 15 years, she co-directed an art school in Danbury, CT with her husband, Roger, who is also a listed sculptor. Prince served as a painting and 2-dimensional art instructor, and Roger headed the 3-dimensional art department. She became a full time antiques dealer after moving to Turner, ME in 1990, and, in partnership with Roger, she participated in antique shows throughout New England, New York, California and New Mexico. She also served on the Maine Antique Dealer Association board. After relocating to Portland, ME in 2000, she continued in the antiques trade, and Roger became a full time working sculptor. She has recently retired from the business, and along with Roger is now in the process of moving to Florida. Paquim̩, better known as Casas Grandes, was a major cultural and trade center in the northwestern region of today‰۪s Chihuahua state for hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spanish in northern Mexico. Culturally affiliated in many ways to Mesoamerica to the south, Casa Grandes acted as an intermediary between Central American peoples and the Mogollon and Hohokam peoples to the north. Its area of influence reached from central New Mexico in the north to central Chihuahua in the south. Its peak of development occurred in the 13th and 14th centuries. Trade items included shells, copper, pottery, and macaws. The ruins of Paquim̩ include more than 2000 rooms, indicating the importance of this settlement. Casas Grandes is known for its remarkable pottery. Today, residents of the neighboring village of Mata Ortiz create pottery inspired by Casas Grandes work, and this pottery is in high demand. (Source: university of Texas at El Paso). Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clays gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated‰ÛÓmost frequently with paint and occasionally with appliqu̩. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and polychrome‰ÛÓa number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce undecorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona), View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavRead more

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Large Navajo Rug : Large Fine Vintage Pine Springs Navajo Rug/Weaving

Large Navajo Rug 301.Description: Ca. 1960's, a large fine weave Pine Springs rug with traditional banded/geometric design. Very good condition. Ex. Ship Rock Trading Post. 4' 2" x 3' 2". This weaving is hand dyed by Ellen using her personal dye palette. She would have gathered the dye stuff from the reservation herself. Ellen Smith was featured in The Fine Art of Navajo Weaving written by Steve Getzwiller. Ellen was one of the Matriarchs of Wide Ruins, a Master Weaver and Dye A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible. There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700's Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700s Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as pinon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weaving's they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880's, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico , Santa Fe Originally appeared in The Collector's Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11, Large Navajo Rug, 301.Description: Ca. 1960's, a large fine weave Pine Springs rug with traditional banded/geometric design. Very good condition. Ex. Ship Rock Trading Post. 4' 2" x 3' 2". This weaving is hand dyed by Ellen using her personal dye palette. She would have gathered the dye stuff from the reservation herself. Ellen Smith was featured in The Fine Art of Navajo Weaving written by Steve Getzwiller. Ellen was one of the Matriarchs of Wide Ruins, a Master Weaver and Dye, , A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible. There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700's Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700s Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each.", Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as pinon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weaving's they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880's, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico , Santa Fe Originally appeared in The Collector's Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11Read more

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Olaf Wieghorst (American, 1899-1988), " A Big Loop", Etching on Paper, #861

Western artist Olaf Wieghorst "A Big Loop" Etching on Paper 861. Description: Western artist Olaf Wieghorst (American, 1899-1988) “A Big Loop”. Etching on paper, signed and titled in margin. This is an exceedingly rare impression and of the kind subject that Wieghorst is famous for. Piece has been newly framed, re-matted and conservation glass added to protect the etching. Size: 5.75 X 8 inches (sight). Conditon: Overall toning, otherwise in excellent condition. Additional Olaf Wieghorst Paintings can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16492699 The Artist: Olaf Wieghorst (April 30, 1899 in Viborg, Denmark – April 27, 1988 in California, United States) was a painter of the American West in the vein of Frederic Remington and Charles Russell. Wieghorst immigrated to the United States from Denmark in 1918 and lived the rest of his life there. He spent his working career on mounted patrol with the U.S. Cavalry, was part of a campaign that chased Poncho Villa back across the border and the New York City Police Department Mounted Division, with occasional interludes as a wrangler on ranches in the western states. Wherever he went, he sketched and painted the Western culture he loved, often selling his work as calendar and magazine illustrations (such as Zane Grey's Western Magazine and Hoofs and Horns, an honor he shared with other cowboy artists such as Dan Muller). In 1945, Wieghorst eventually settled in El Cajon, San Diego County, California and spent the rest of his life there working on his art. Many of his works can be found on display at the Olaf Wieghorst Museum in El Cajon, California (a San Diego suburb). View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavRead more

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Native American Acoma Pottery Olla, by Rachel Aragon, Ca 1980's, #1374

Native American Acoma Pottery Olla, by Rachel Aragon, Ca 1980's, #1374 Description: #1374 Native American Acoma Pottery Olla, by Rachel Aragon, Ca 1980's. Handmade pottery of natural clay indigenous to the area and hand coiled in the traditional technique. Decorated with traditional designs in black and red on white. Artist signed "R. Aragon, Acoma, NM" on bottom. ca 1980's. Dimensions: 9" x 12" Condition: Very good for age. Two .25" or less painted chips on rim. Provenance: From a Scottsdale Estate. Rachael Aragon has long been considered one of the finest traditionalist potters from Acoma. She is a daughter of Lupe Aragon and a sister of Florence Aragon and Mary Trujillo. She learned to make pottery from her mother and has continued to make classic shaped vessels with intricately painted designs. She has won numerous awards for her pottery at Santa Fe Indian Market, Gallup Ceremonials and other events. (King Gallery) “Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clays gathered from each pueblo’s local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated—most frequently with paint and occasionally with appliqué. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo’s pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and polychrome—a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce undecorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art.” (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona)Read more

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Authentic Chang Naga Ceremonial Textile Woven Body Cloth w Cowrie Shells #525

Warrior Body Cloth Authentic Chang Naga Warrior (Northeastern India) Ceremonial Textile Woven Body Cloth 525. Description: Authentic Chang Naga warrior (Northeastern India) ceremonial textile Woven body cloth, with cowrie shell circles and human figures. Dimensions 60 x 42 inches. Some wear, but overall in excellent condition for its use and age which is estimated to be early to mid 20th century. This piece was originally adorned with all circles of cowrie shells and then redone later with the human figures. This type of re purposing was not unusual. It is all part of the story of how important this piece must have been to the original owner. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.(Source: Times of India), Warrior Body Cloth, Authentic Chang Naga Warrior (Northeastern India) Ceremonial Textile Woven Body Cloth, 525. Description: Authentic Chang Naga warrior (Northeastern India) ceremonial textile Woven body cloth, with cowrie shell circles and human figures. Dimensions 60 x 42 inches. Some wear, but overall in excellent condition for its use and age which is estimated to be early to mid 20th century. This piece was originally adorned with all circles of cowrie shells and then redone later with the human figures. This type of re purposing was not unusual. It is all part of the story of how important this piece must have been to the original owner. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture, The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are:, Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line), Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1], Further reading, Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.(Source: Times of India)Read more

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Angami Man/Woman's Body Cloth #657

Naga Textiles Authentic Angami Man/Woman's Body Cloth 657. Authentic Angami man/woman's body cloth with empty white background and woven with embroidered patches on borders. The piece is 66 inches long and 32 inches wide. Some ware, but overall in excellent condition for its use and age which is estimated to be early to mid 20th century. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.(Source: Times of India), Naga Textiles, Authentic Angami Man/Woman's Body Cloth, 657. Authentic Angami man/woman's body cloth with empty white background and woven with embroidered patches on borders. The piece is 66 inches long and 32 inches wide. Some ware, but overall in excellent condition for its use and age which is estimated to be early to mid 20th century. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture, The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are:, Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line), Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1], Further reading, Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.(Source: Times of India)Read more

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