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Western Artist, Ron Stewart, Water Color Painting, Entitled "Time

Western Artist Ron Stewart 773. Description: Ron Stewart, Water Color Painting, “Time to gather”, Ca 1970’s. With a small detailed Remarque in the lower right hand corner. Signed in lower left hand corner. Dimension: Overall frame size is 17.25 x 13.25, Size of painting 10.75 x 7.0 “. Condition: Excellent Condition Ron Stewart is a painter and sculptor of western, historical, wildlife, and animal subjects. He was born in Brooklyn, NY. In the over-crowded field of contemporary western artists, Ron Stewart’s professional achievements have made his work familiar to a wide range of discriminating collectors. Ron is among those who is tied hard and fast to the quality of painting and the historical fidelity of the Old West Masters. The refined artistic abilities, in watercolor, oil, and bronze, are truly distinguished, but Ron brings more to his work than just the technical competence of a western illustrator. The Ron Stewart hallmark is the representation of the mood and the atmosphere appropriate to whatever he approaches. His paintings breathe life into the dusty pages of western history, be it the bawl of longhorn cattle, the war whoop of the red men, or the mountain man in his wilderness solitude. Ron has received awards multiple times at the competitive Death Valley Invitational (5), the George Phippen Memorial (3), and Best of Show, and Best Watercolor at the Pikes Peak National Invitational Show (2), and he also received numerous awards at the Western Artist of America, including three gold medals in Watercolor, two Silver medals in Watercolor, and one Silver medal in Oil, and one Silver medal in Bronze. His work can be seen at Mountain Trail Galleries in Jackson, Wyoming; Signature Gallery, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Santa Fe, NM; Long coat Gallery, Ruidoso, NM; and Sanders Gallery, Tucson, AZ. His life was chronicled in Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West in winter of 1979, Ron and his wife Sharon have resided in Arizona for the last 45 years. Stewart has exhibited throughout the West in juried and group shows, collecting a variety of top awards for his works, including numerous gold and silver medals in oil, watercolor, bronze and drawing. International collections include locations in England, France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Spain, the Philippines, and Japan.Read more

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Long Necklace : Authentic Naga Extra Long Teal Royal Glass Bead Necklace

Long Necklace Authentic Naga Extra Long Teal Royal Glass Bead Necklace 636. Authentic Konyak Naga extra Long tea Royal Glass bead Necklace with fine beaded clasp. Extremely special example of less common teal color with chevron, green and other rare beads in the center. The piece is 25 inches long, has 79 strands of fine teal colored seed beads and has a old shell as a closure. It is in excellent condition considering its use and age which is estimated to be early to mid 19th century. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.(Source: Times of India)Read more

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Pre Colombian Poly Chrome Pottery, Cases Grande Hominoid Vase, #913

Pre Colombian Casas Grande Hominoid Vase 913: Description: Polychrome Pottery Casas Grandes, New Mexico, 850-1336 AC. Dimensions: 8.8" x 8.4 inches. Condition: Excellent for its age. Provenance is: Collection of Professor G, Poitiers, France. He was a literature university teacher in many countries all over the world and had a very large collection of cultural art. Some background on Casas Grande Follows: Paquim̩, better known as Casas Grandes, was a major cultural and trade center in the northwestern region of today's Chihuahua state for hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spanish in northern Mexico. Culturally affiliated in many ways to Mesoamerica to the south, Casa Grandes acted as an intermediary between Central American peoples and the Mogollon and Hohokam peoples to the north. Its area of influence reached from central New Mexico in the north to central Chihuahua in the south. Its peak of development occurred in the 13th and 14th centuries. Trade items included shells, copper, pottery, and macaws. The ruins of Paquim̩ include more than 2000 rooms, indicating the importance of this settlement. Casas Grandes is known for its remarkable pottery. Today, residents of the neighboring village of Mata Ortiz create pottery inspired by Casas Grandes work, and this pottery is in high demand. (Source: university of Texas at El Paso). Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clay's gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and polychrome a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce undecorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art. (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona)Read more

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Hand Woven Fabric : Authentic Rare Chang Tribe Naga Warrior's Hand

Hand Woven Fabric 651. Authentic rare Chang tribe Naga warrior's hand-woven body cloth with stitched cowrie shell single circles and single human figure, representative of head taking. Cowrie shells acquired in trade, cut and filed to enable stitching. Some wear, but excellent condition. Probably early to mid 20th century. The piece is 58 inches long and 41 inches wide. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.(Source: Times of India)Read more

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Pottery Jar : Very Nice Pre-Columbian Wari Pottery Jar From Peru #364

Pottery Jar 364. Description: Wari Pre-Columbian Polychrome Pottery. Dimensions are approximately 5.5" high x 5. Wide. The snake on the left side is missing part of his body. Other than this, very good for its age. All items are unconditionally guaranteed to be Authentic as described. For added security we offer a full money-back guarantee if a recognized authority disputes the authenticity of any object sold. The Wari (Spanish: Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.[1] (The Wari culture is not to be confused with the modern ethnic group and language known as Wari', with which it has no known link.) Wari, as the former capital city was called, is located 11 km (6.8 mi) north-east of the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. This city was the center of a civilization that covered much of the highlands and coast of modern Peru. The best-preserved remnants, beside the Wari Ruins, are the recently discovered Northern Wari ruins near the city of Chiclayo, and Cerro Baul in Moquegua. Also well-known are the Wari ruins of Pikillaqta ("Flea Town"), a short distance south-east of Cuzco en route to Lake Titicaca. Early on, the Wari expanded their territory to include the ancient oracle center of Pachacamac, though it seems to have remained largely autonomous. Later the Wari became dominant in much of the territory of the earlier Moche and later Chimu cultures. The reason for this expansion has been debated; it is believed to have been driven by religious conversion, military conquest, or the spread of agricultural knowledge (specifically terrace agriculture). During this expansion, the Wari state established architecturally distinctive administrative centers in many of its provinces. These centers are clearly different from the architecture of Tiwanaku, which is believed to have been a more federalized state by some scholars (such as John W. Janusek). Using these administrative centers, the Wari greatly influenced the surrounding countryside. They created new fields with terraced field technology and invested in construction of a major road network. Several centuries later, when the Inca began to expand their empire, they drew on both of these innovations. Little is known about the details of the Wari administrative structure, as they did not appear to use a form of written record. But, the emphasis on homogeneous administrative architecture and evidence for significant social stratification suggests a complex socio-political hierarchy. The discovery in early 2013 of an undisturbed royal tomb, El Castillo de Huarmey, offers new insight into the social and political influence of the Wari during this period. The variety and extent of the burial items accompanying the three royal women indicates a culture with significant material wealth and the power to dominate a significant part of northern costal Peru for many decades.[2] As a result of centuries of drought, the Wari culture began to deteriorate around 800 A.D. Archeologists have determined that the city of Wari was dramatically depopulated by 1000 A.D., although it continued to be occupied by a small number of descendant groups. Buildings in Wari and in other government centers had doorways that were deliberately blocked up, as if the Wari intended to return, someday when the rains returned.[3] But by the time this happened, the Wari had faded from history. In the meantime, the dwindling residents of the Wari cities ceased all major construction. Archaeological evidence shows significant levels of inter-personal violence, suggesting that warfare and raiding increased amongst rival groups upon the collapse of the Wari state structure (TA Tung 2008). With the collapse of the Wari, the Late Intermediate Period is said to begin. References 1. Susan E. Bergh (2012). Wari: Lords of the Ancient Andes. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51656-0. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 2. First Unlooted Royal Tomb of Its Kind Unearthed in Peru". Retrieved 2013-06-0. 3. Wright, Kenneth R.; McEwan, Gordon Francis; Wright, Ruth M. (2006). Tipon: Water Engineering Masterpiece of the Inca Empire. ASCE. p. 27. ISBN 9780784408513. Additional reading 4. COLLIER, SIMON ET AL. (ED.) (1992). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Latin America and the Caribbean (Second Edition ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41322-2. 5. Wendell C. Bennett, Excavations at Wari, Ayachucho, Peru (1953). 6. Gordon F. McEwan, The Middle Horizon in the Valley of Cuzco, Peru: The Impact of the Wari Occupation of the Lucre Basin (1987). 7. William H. Isbell and Gordon F. McEwan, eds., Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government (1991). 8. Katharina J. Schreiber, Wari Imperialism in Middle Horizon Peru (1992). 9. TA Tung. Violence after Imperial Collapse: A Study of Cranial Trauma among Late Intermediate Period Burials from the Former Huari Capital, Ayacucho, Peru. Nawpa Pacha. 29:101-118. (2008) External links 10. Brian Finucane, "Ayacucho Archaeo-Isotope Project" 11. "Archaeological chemists settle trophy-head debate 12. "Pre-Incan female Wari mummy unearthed in Peru", Reuters 13. "A Champion of the Wari," about curator Susan E. Bergh, by Judith H. Dobrzynski, The Wall Street Journal, October 24, 2012 14. "Who Was Who in the Middle Horizon Andean Prehistory" by Patricia J. Knobloch (Source Wikipedia)Read more

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Maricopa Jar, Native American Pottery, Pueblo Pottery, Southwestern

667. Description: Native American Maricopa set of three beautiful black-on-red jars, two with flared rims. Ca., mid 1900s Condition: All in good to very good condition, but showing some use. There is small chip out of the lip of the smallest piece. Dimensions: Largest 4-1/4" x 4-1/2", ----------- Find more pottery from the American Southwest here: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?section_id=15777760&ref=shopsection_leftnav_1 ------------ A History of Pueblo Pottery: Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clay's gathered from each pueblo's local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo's pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and poly chrome a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce un-decorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art. (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona) ---------------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavRead more

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Beads : Authentic Konyak Naga Small Orange Tile Bead Collar with Disc

Beads 608. Authentic Konyak Naga small orange tile bead collar with shell disc. Known as being from the one particular group of Konyak hills higher in elevation than other. Rare, small bib necklace in this bead, as opposed to the long, tubular brown yiptung bead. The shells of status at back end act as the clasp as well. The piece is 23 inches long, has 9 strands of beads, and is in excellent condition for its use and age which is the early to mid 19th century. Please note that the designation Authentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5. (Source: Times of India)Read more

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Black Pottery : Rare Historic Black Pottery Pot from Bagan, Myanmar #455

Black Pottery 455. Rare Historic Black Pottery Pot from Bagan, Myanmar. Piece is approximately 10" x 7.5" and has stippling just under the lip. The piece might have been buried, as you can see the remains of roots that surrounded it. There is one small chip in the lip but other than this, it is in excellent condition for its age which is reportedly the late 1700's-early 1800's. Bagan is an ancient city located in the Mandalay Region of Burma. From the 9th to 13th centuries, the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Pagan, the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern Myanmar. During the kingdom's height between the 11th and 13th centuries, over 4,000 Buddhist temples, pagodas and monasteries were constructed in the Bagan plains alone, of which the remains of over 2200 temples and pagodas still survive to the present day. (Source: Wikipedia) Bagan History The monuments seem to overwhelm the landscape. There are about 2,000 of them covering an area of 16 square miles on the eastern bank of the Ayeyarwady in central Myanmar. They are in different sizes and in a bewildering variety of shapes. They are also in varying stages of preservation and disrepair. Some of them throb with life, visited by devotees, a few have become little more than piles of bricks. Whence do they come, these monuments? Who built them? Why? To find an answer to questions such as these one has to travel back in time, to a time when Bagan flourished as a royal city, the heart of a great kingdom. Tradition has it that Bagan was founded by Thamoddarit in the early 2nd century. But perhaps it would be better to date the Bagan of the monuments from its establishment as a walled city, with twelve gates and a moat, by King Pyinbya in 849. The chronicles give a list of kings who reigned at Bagan from Thamoddarit onwards, with Pyinbya as the 34th king. But legend is inextricably mingled with history, and sometimes overshadow it, in the accounts of the kings in the chronicles, and it is only with the 42nd king in the list, Anawrahta, that Bagan emerges into the clear light of history. The two and a half centuries from Anawahta's( 1044-1077) accession to the throne in 1044 to the flight of Narathihapate (1256-1287) from the capital in 1283 in the face of the Mongol invasion were the years of Bagan's greatness. The kingdom stretched from Bhamo in the north and far down to the south, from the Thanlwin river in the east to the Western Yoma in the west. Bagan was known as Tattadesa, the Parched Land, to the Mons, and not much rice was grown in the environs of the capital itself. But the royal city could draw upon the rich rice granaries of Kyaukse, 90 miles to the northeast, and Minbu, 70 miles to the south. The Ayeyarwady river linked it to the sea and to the commerce of the Indian Ocean. There was much intercourse with neighbouring countries. Support was given to King Vijaya Bahu I (105 9-1114) of Sri Lanka to sustain him in his struggle against the Chola of southern India to help him re-establish a purified Buddhism. Missions were sent to the northern Song capital of Kaifeng. Repairs were made to the Mahabodhi temple at Bodh Gaya in northern India. Perhaps more salient than all these indications of economic well-being and political power was the fact that Buddhism flourished exceedingly in Bagan. Tradition, basing itself upon the Sinhalese chronicle, the Mahavamsa, attributes the origins of Buddhism in Myanmar to the mission of Sona and Uttara who, in the 3rd century B.C., came to Suvannabhumi, usually identified with That on, on the Gulf of Mottama. Some modern scholars dispute this point. But even if tradition is to be ignored, there can be no denying that Buddhism was already flourishing in Myanmar in the 1st century A.D., as attested by the archaeological evidence at Peikthanomyo (Vishnu City), 90 miles southeast of Bagan. Buddhism was also an invigorating influence at Thayekhittaya, near modern Pyaymyo 160 miles south of Bagan, where a developed civilization flourished from the 5th to the 9th century. Notwithstanding the fact that Buddhism had enjoyed a long history in Myanmar before the 11th century, the reign of Anawrahta provided a landmark in the development of Buddhism in Myanmar. Anawrahta was a king of strong religious zeal as well as one of great power. His clay votive tablets, made to acquire merit, are found widely in Myanmar from Katha in the north to Twante in the south. These votive tablets usually have, on the obverse, a seated image of the Buddha in the earth-touching attitude, with two lines underneath which express the essence of the Buddhist creed: The Buddha hath the causes told Of all things springing from causes; And also how things cease to be, 'Tis this the Mighty Monk proclaims. On the reverse would be the prayer: Desiring that he may be freed from samscira the Great Prosperous King Aniruddha himself made this image of the Lord. The chronicles relate that a monk from Thaton, Shin Arahan, came to Anawrahta in Bagan and preached to him the Law, on which Anawrahta was seized with an ecstasy of faith and said, "Master, we have no other refuge than thee! From this day forth, my master, we dedicate our body and our life to thee! And, master, from thee I take my doctrine!" Shin Arahan further taught Anawrahta that without the Scriptures, the Tipitaka, there could be no study, and that it was only with the Tipitaka that the Religion would last long. Anawrahta, informed that there were thirty sets of the Tipitaka at Thaton, sent an envoy with presents to its king,Manuha, and asked for the Tipitaka. Manuha refused, on which Anawrahta sent a mighty army, conquered Thaton, and brought back the thirty sets of Tipitaka on Manuha's thirty-two white elephants, as well as Manuha and his court and all manners of artisans and craftsmen. From its patronage by Anawrahta is usually dated the flourishing of Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar, and the monuments of Bagan, with only a few exceptions, are all monuments of Theravada Buddhism. The establishment of Theravada Buddhism as the dominant religion of Myanmar did not preclude the existence of other schools and beliefs. Prior to the coming of Buddhism there existed in Myanmar a folk religion which involved the worship of nats or spirits to whom offerings were made. The spirits were not only those of nature, but also of personages who had died a violent or tragic death. At Bagan the cult of the Mahagiri ("Great Mountain") rato-brother and sister who had their abode at Mount Popa, 40 miles to the southeast of Bagan-was particularly strong This folk religion persisted in a symbiotic existence with Theravada Buddhism at Bagan. But that was not all. Mahayana Buddhism, with its pantheon of Bodhisattvas who had postponed their entry into nirvana to help their fellow creatures find salvation, also continued to have a tenuous presence at Bagan, a presence which can be detected in some of the details of the monuments. There was a presence too of Hinduism, which the court drew upon for some of its rituals and ceremonies. Religious fervour, brought on by the flowering of Theravada Buddhism, inspired the men and women of Bagan to undertake great works of merit and to give lavishly to the Religion. The donation of a noble lady is thus recorded: When our Lord Kinkathu passed away, our Lord's wife, who loved her husband as her own life, was agitated at the law of instability and made three dwellings to the Three Gems. Out of a heart of boundless faith she built the three dwellings wishing that the merit of her good deed would go to the three persons: her deceased lord, her mother and her father. Her private property, the nine kinds of gems, her gold and silver, red copper and white copper, iron, lead, her outward property, such as boats, elephants, cattle, buffaloes, goats, ivory, and her slaves and lands and gardens-in order that such property might be a support to the Religion, she offered them without stint to the Lords"s Religion and allotted them to the three dwellings, and, calling the earth to witness, she poured the water of offering. The usual aspiration in these religious donations w as to acquire merit, be reborn in the celestial realms, to come into the presence of Metteyva, the next Buddha, and finally to attain nibbana. But sometimes the aspiration would rise higher-to that of Buddhahood itself. A good example of this aspiration is provided by the dedicatory prayer-written in elegant Pali verse-offered by King Alaungsithu (1113-1163) on building the Shwegugyi temple in 1131: By merit of this act I would behold Metteyya, captain of the world, endued With two and thirty emblems, where he walks Enhaloed on a rainbow pathway fair Like Meru King of mountains, and sets free Samsara's captives by his holy words. There might I hear good Law, and bending low Offer the four things needful to the Lord And all his monks, till clad in virtues eight Informed by such a Teacher, I become A Buddha in the eyes of spirits and men... A noble aspiration indeed! But whatever the aspiration, the merit acquired by the donation was not meant for the donor alone, but for all. Thus Queen Pwa Saw made this prayer of dedication: May my noble husband lord the king, my son the king, my grandson the king, these three kings, and all the future kings to come share equally with me the merit of this work. May the princes and princesses, the queen and all her ladies-in-waiting, the ministers and all the hosts, the Thagya, Brahma, the four Guardians of the world and all the spirits, Tataw the Yama King, men and other beings who dwell in our would-system and other world-systems from Avici hell below to the celestial realms above also get a share of my merit. May they escape the miseries of samsara and reach nibbana which is free from misery." With great magnanim-ity, then, Queen Pwa Saw shared the merit of her act with all beings of the thirty-one realms: the twenty celestial realms of the brahmas, the six celestial realms of the thagyas or devas, the mundane realm, and even the four hells. The donors of Bagan indeed gave lavishly to the Religion. But what were the expenses of building the pagodas and temples which they built in such profusion? It is to be remembered that the workmen employed for the building were free men who had to be provided with board and wages. Princess Asawkyun le this list of expenses for the building of a temple: Grand total of silver 1747 (ticals) 3 pay Grand total of copper 74 viss Grand total of loincloth 113 pieces Grand total of gold for smearing the spire 23 ticals Grand total of quicksilver 92 ticals Grand total of paddy 1867'/2 baskets Grand total of areca nuts 2 Barrels and 1166? Grand total of black pepper 7/23 viss Grand total of salt 754 viss Grand total of copper for the spire 66 viss The builders of Bagan built both with wood and with brick, but the wooden buildings have been destroyed and only the brick remain. Since brick structures abounded at Peikthanomyo in the 1st century, there was already a millenium-old tradition of brick masonry when the men of Bagan began to give expression to their religious fervour in brick. The builders of Bagan built in brick with masterful ease and the brickwork of the Bagan monuments is excellent-the bricks are fashioned with care and made to fit together with so little intervening space that the mortar is hardly visible. Not only have architectural forms derived from India been assimilated and reshaped but the true or voussoir arch-unknown in India - and its extension, the vault, is used with great effectiveness. (Source: Bagan, Myanmar.com)Read more

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James Regimbal, Bronze Sculpture “The Roper”, 1/50, ca 1978, #832 SOLD

James Regimbal Bronze Sculpture, "The Roper" 832. Description: James P Regimbal (American, Born 1949) Bronze Figural Group of Cowboy and Horse, inscribed "The Roper", Jim Regimbal 1/50 (edition), 1978, mounted on wood base. Dimensions 14 3/4 x 15 x 9 1/2 inches. Condition: Excellent condition considering the age. ---------- You can find more of James’ work at https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16131018 ------------ Artist: James Regimbal strives to pass on the true story of our American heritage through his bronze sculpture. According to James: “Only the best of my work is good enough to be cast in bronze...Perfection from me, is the first step.” Regimbal creates very detailed, historically accurate bronzes. Taking his inspiration from true to life western books and western movies. Regimbal has detailed all aspects of the cowboy's life from the pre-1900. Subjects such as packers, Indians, warriors, hunters, story tellers, cavalrymen and bronco busters have all been accurately portrayed down to the minutest details by this talented sculptor. Regimbal researches every detail - buckles, pack items, saddles - all in an attempt to bring to life each scene in history as if the viewer were actually there. Regimbal's demand for excellence has resulted in hundreds of national and international collectors including the University of Montana Foundation, which has the complete collection of his works. The artist has received the George Phippen Award, and Southern Nevada Communications uses his bronzes for logos in their advertisements. It is Regimbal's desire that his sculptures will stand the test of time and keep alive a part of our romantic American history for many generations to come. (Source: May Gallery) ------------- You can find othe find art works at https://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=hdr_shop_menuRead more

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Vintage Burmese Kalaga, Ca late 1900’s. #964

Burmese Kalaga #964. Vintage Burmese Kalaga, Ca late 1900’s. Beautiful tapestry inside frame, without glass. Dimensions: 46” x 28” inside frame, including frame is 50” x 32” Condition: Very good for age, with only a few missing beads, bronze sequins all in tack. Provenance: Smith Estate, Howell MI Background Info on Kalaga’s follow: Kalaga (Burmese) is a heavily embroidered appliqué tapestry made of silk, flannel, felt, wool and lace against a background made of cotton or velvet indigenous to Burma (Myanmar).[1] The word kalaga, which means "curtain," comes from the Burmese language, although Burmese refer to such tapestries as shwe gyi do; lit. "gold thread embroidery").[2] These tapestries use a sewing technique called shwe gyi [3] This art form emerged during the Konbaung dynasty in the mid-19th century and reached its zenith during the reign of Mindon Min, when velvet became fashionable at the royal court.[4] In a typical tapestry, padded figures are cut from various types of cloth and sewn onto a background, usually red or black cloth to form an elaborate scene, traditionally from Burmese classical plays (e.g. Ramayana, Jataka).[1][5][6] The figures are sewn using a combination of metallic and plain threads and adorned with sequins, beads and glass stones.[6] References. 1. a b Mukharji, T. N. (1888). Art-manufactures of India. Superintendent of Government Printing, India. pp. 387–388. 2."Journal of Burma Studies - Volume 16.1". Northern Illinois University. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 3. Fraser-Lu, Sylvia (1994). Burmese Crafts: Past and Present. Oxford University Press. p. 265. ISBN 9780195886085. 4. Falconer, John; Luca Invernizzi (2000). Burmese Design and Architecture. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 194–195. ISBN 9789625938820. 5. Leslie, Catherine Amoroso (2007). Needlework Through History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 121. ISBN 9780313335488. 6. Jump up to:a b "More information about Burmese Kalagas". SiamTraders.com. 2001. Retrieved 6 October 2013.(Source: Wikipedia) You can actually see how they are made here. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fiCQu_v83ek "Kalaga" is the traditional name for embroidered tapestries from Myanmar (Burma). This style comes from the Mandalay region and the tradition goes back more than a century. They are generally made from linen, silk, velvet and cotton adorned with plain and metallic threads, metal sequins, beads and glass "stones." Kalagas commonly depict stories from the Jataka (Buddha's journey towards enlightenment) and the Ramayana (Hindu epic Journey of King Rama) as well as historical scenes, lucky animals and signs of the zodiac. Like the decorations you might see in an ornate Burmese temple, Kalagas are awash in colorful and shiny details. Most Kalagas are best hung in a frame but not under glass so that the detail and texture can be fully appreciated. They can also be hung as-is without a frame. (Source: Siam Traders)Read more

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South West Pottery : Native American Hopi Pottery Jar, signed by Adelle

South West Pottery 149. Description: Small beautiful polychrome seed pot with Nampeyo-style designs. Very good condition. Dimensions: 2-3/4" x 4" Date: Ca. 1970's. 'Adelle Lalo-Nampeyo was born into the Corn Clan in the Hopi-Tewa Nation in August, 1959. She is one of the great granddaughters of the famous Nampeyo, who was known for reviving and expanding the beautiful ancient pottery designs from the archeological site at Sikyatki on the eastern side of the Hopi First Mesa. Adelle was inspired to learn the art of pottery making from her Mother, the late Elva Nampeyo. She was also taught by her Grandmother, the noted Hopi potter Fannie Polacca Nampeyo. She has been making pottery since 1979. She is the sister of Miriam Nampeyo, who also is a very talented Hopi-Tewa potter, as well as Neva Polacca, Choyou Nampeyo and Elton Tewaguna Nampeyo. She specializes in Traditional Hopi pottery, black and red or yellow jars and bowls. Adelle specializes in the handmade traditional ancient Sikyatki polychrome pottery which her family is famous for. All of her materials are from Mother Earth. She hand coils all of her pottery the traditional way. She finishes her pottery by polishing it with polishing stones, paintig the designs with brushes made of yucca, and then firing the pottery in an outdoor firing pit, smothered with sheep dung. Adelle says she enjoys making seed pots most of all because they are easier to work with. Her favorite design is the fine line and eagle tail. She strongly believes that she needs to continue making pottery the traditional way because of her strong spiritual beliefs. Adelle is now teaching her children the art that her ancestors have taught her so that they can continue in her footsteps. Adelle signs her pottery as: Adelle L. Nampeyo, followed by a corn symbol to proudly denote her clan origin.(Source: Hopi Arts) Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clays gathered from each pueblo‰۪s local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo‰۪s pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and polychrome a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce undecorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art. (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona)Read more

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Royal Naga Necklace : Authentic Naga Long Maroon Royal Glass Bead Necklace #635

Royal Naga Necklace Authentic Naga Long Maroon Royal Glass Bead Necklace 635. Authentic Konyak Naga Long Maroon Royal Glass bead Necklace, a very fine example in perfect condition. Rare unusual color, made with special beads in the center typical of chief clan ownership. The piece is 18 inches long, has 46 strands of fine maroon colored seed beads and has a old shell as a closure. It is in excellent condition considering its use and age which is estimated to be early to mid 19th century. Please note that the designation ÏAuthentic means that the piece was made by the Nagas and used by them in their actual ceremonies and not made for tourists. Nagaland has a rich diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religions. More than 80% of the population lives in small, isolated villages and practice their own rituals and traditions that have been existing since centuries. The Nagas are said to belong to the Indo-Mongoloid stock, a race whose presence was first noted ten centuries before Christ, at the time of the compilation of the Vedas. The Nagas are mostly Christians. Naga Features: The Nagas are usually medium sized. The nose is flat, eyes curved, complexion fair, and hair straight. Men are muscular and women are usually short. One unique feature of the Nagas is that they wear conical red headgear decorated with wild boar canine teeth and white black Hornbill feathers, the spear with the shaft decorated with red black hairs and the unique dao with broad blade and long handle. Both men and women wear traditional Naga jewelry. Naga shawls are very famous among the tribes. Tattooing is customary among the tribes. Nagaland Culture The tribes of Nagaland are unique in their culture and traditions. The tribes are excellent and skilled craftsmen. Naga tribes are known for being hard working and laborious. They are known for making exquisite bamboo and cane products, weaving and wood carving. The Nagas are expert in basketry, weaving, woodcarving, pottery and metal work. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Rice, millet and Taro potato are grown by the people. The tribes of Nagaland are very fond of dance and music. Music forms an essential parts of their lives. There are different traditional dances and music of the different tribes. The music of is characterized by folk songs and music accentuated by traditional instruments. People of Nagaland are also famous for celebrating numerous seasonal fairs and festivals. All the tribes celebrate their own distinct festivals with dance and music. The most important festivals celebrated by the tribes include Sekrenyi, Moatsu Mong, Suhkruhnye, Bushu, Yemshe, and Metumniu among others. The food of the Naga tribe consist of rice, millet, vegetables, fish, meat, Naga chilly and chutney. Nagaland Village System: The tribes live mainly in villages. For the Nagas family is the most important institution. Women are treated equally with men. Nagas are traditionally and tribally organized with a strong warrior tradition. Head hunting is an important aspect of the people. Most of the houses of the Nagas have skull displaying their warrior qualities. Different Tribes of Nagaland: Nagaland is home to some 16 different kinds of tribes with distinct and fascinating cultures. Each of the Naga tribe is divided into as many as twenty clans. The Nagas speak 60 different dialects. The prominent tribes are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Lotha, Pochury, Phom, Poumai, Rongmei Naga, Rengma, Sangtam, Sema, Mao and Zeliang among many others. The languages of the Nagas may vary from Angami-Pochury, Ao, Kukish, Sal, Tangkhul and Zeme branches of Tibeto Burman. Some important tribes are: Angami Naga: The Angami Nagas are one of the major tribes of Nagaland. The Angamis mainly celebrate the Sekrenyi festival. They are basically hill people and depend on agriculture for their mode of livelihood. 98 % of the Angamis are Christians. Ao Naga: Ao Nagas are another major tribes in Nagaland. They reside mainly in Tsula to Tsurang in Mokokchung district. The Ao Nagas are known for the celebration of different harvest festivals. The Aos are primarily Christians. Chang: Changs are one of the recognized Scheduled Tribes in India. The traditional territory of the Chang lies in the Central Tuensang district. About 99 % of the Changs are Christians. They speak the Chang language and the Chang people are very fond of music and dance. They celebrate Christmas, Naknyu Lem, Poang Lem, Jeinyu Leam and so many other festivals with fanfare and gaiety. Konyak: Konyak have the largest populations among the Nagas. They are found in the Mon district of Nagaland. They are famous for their tattoos all over their faces and hands. Lotha: Lotha is also a major Naga tribe and reside in the Wokha district. They are popular for traditional dance and folk songs. Sumi: Sumi Nagas are one of the major Naga tribes. They mainly inhabit in the Zunheboto district. 99 % of the Sumis are Christians. Tuluni and Ahuna are the most important festivals of the Sumis. Yimchunger: Yimchunger is a minor Naga group. Metmneo festival is celebrated by the Yimchunge people. Khiamniungan: Khiamniungan is comparatively a minor Naga group. They mainly reside in the Tuensang district in Nagaland. Miu festival and Tsokum festival are the most important festivals celebrated by this tribal group. (Source: India on line) Tangkhul: Tangkhul is a Naga tribe living in the Indo-Burma border area occupying the Ukhrul district in Manipur, India and the Somra Tangkhul hills (Somra tract) in Upper Burma. Despite this international border, many Tangkhul have continued to regard themselves as "one nation".[1] Further reading Stirn, Aglaja & Peter van Ham. The Hidden world of the Naga: Living Traditions in Northeast India. London: Prestel. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein. 2008. Naga Identities: Changing Local Cultures in the Northeast of India. Gent: Snoeck Publishers. Kunz, Richard & Vibha Joshi. 2008. Naga A Forgotten Mountain Region Rediscovered. Basel: Merian. Alban von Stockhausen: Imag (in) ing the Nagas: The Pictorial Ethnography of Hans-Eberhard Kauffmann and Christoph von FÌ_rer-Haimendorf. Arnoldsche, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-89790-412-5.(Source: Times of India)Read more

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