Cultural Patina

Cultural Patina provides a platform for people to access global high quality art, easily. Since their establishment in 2014 owner Dennis has managed to collect a plethora of pottery, sculptures, textiles, jewellery from across the globe and the second largest accumulation of original Naga Indian art in US.

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Objects "Cultural Patina"

Peru : Beautiful Large Pre-Columbian Chancay Pottery Llama #340

Peru 340. Description: Peru, Ca 1000 to 1200 CE. Large standing Llama, with fat body, open mouth and painted black over buff decoration. 11" L. Provenance: Ex Westermann Collection and Artemis Gallery. Condition: Intact and excellent. All items are unconditionally guaranteed to be Authentic as described. For added security we offer a full money-back guarantee if a recognized authority disputes the authenticity of any object sold. "History: Not much is known about the Chancay civilization which developed in the later part of the Inca empire. This culture emerged after the fall of the Wari civilization. Parts of the southern Chancay area were conquered by the Chim̼ in the early fifteenth century and in about 1450 A.D. the Incas were occupying both areas.[1] It is believed that the Chancay had a centralized political structure, forming a small regional state.[3] Thus the Chancay culture declined in the fifteenth century to make way for the territorial expansion of the Inca Empire. Occupying the central coast coastal region of Peru, the Chancay were centered mostly in the Chancay and ChillÌ_n valleys, although they also occupied other areas such as the Rimac and Lurin valley areas. [2] The center of the Chancay culture was located 80 kilometers north of Lima. It is a desert region but has fertile valleys bathed by rivers and is rich in resources that allowed for, among other things, extensive agricultural development. The Chancay developed intense trade relations with other regions, allowing them to interract with other cultures and settlements in a wide area. Economy: The Chancay culture based its economy on agriculture, fishing and trade. Water reservoirs and irrigation canals were built by engineers in order to develop agriculture. As the culture was geographically located on the oceanfront, they were involved in traditional fishing both from the shore as well as further out to sea from their caballitos de totora, an ancient type of watercraft unique to Peru. The Chancay also traded with other regions either by land towards the Peruvian highlands and jungle or by sea to the north and south of their borders. The settlements in Lauri, Lumbra, Tambo Blanco, Handrail, Pisquillo Chico and Tronconal focused mainly on artisans producing large-scale ceramics and textiles. The Chancay culture is the first of the Peruvian cultures that had mass production of ceramics, textiles and metals such as gold and silver which were ritualistic and domestic goods. They were also noted for their wood carved items.[1] The curacas, political leaders, regulated the production of artisans, farmers and ranchers as well as oversaw festive activities. Textiles: The most well-known Chancay artefacts are the textiles which ranged from embroidered pieces, different types of fabrics decorated with paint. A variety of techniques, colours and themes were used in the making of textiles .[2] They used an array of colours including yellows, browns, scarlet, white, blues and greens. [1] types of fabric used included: llama wool, cotton, chiffon and feathers .[2] Their technique involved were decorated open weave, brocade, embroidery, and painting. [2] Brushes were used to paint anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, geometric and other creative designs directly on the canvases. The Chancay are known for the quality of their painted tapestries. The typically geometric designs also included drawings of plants, animals such as fish, cats, birds, monkeys and dogs (most notably the hairless Peruvian dog[4]) as well as human figures.[3] Birds and deities wearing crescent-like headdresses were one of the more common decorative features .[1] They produced a variety of goods such as clothing, bags, and funeral masks. [2] Many Chancay textiles survive to date. It is believed that their production was quite extensive, due to the quantities that have been preserved. The quality of the textile material appears to be good as they were carefully made.[1] Canvases or gauzes were used primarily for religious and magical purposes. They were made for covering the head of the dead in the form of a headdresses. According to the beliefs of the time, the threads on these fabrics had to be spun in the form of an "S" in an anticlockwise direction. This thread, which had a magical character, was called lloque and, according to legend, the garments were infused with supernatural powers and served as protection in the afterlife. Feathers were inserted into a main thread which was then sewn onto the fabric. The Chancay also manufactured dolls and other objects covered with pieces of woven fabric and various threads. Ceramics: Ceramics are also a very common feature of the Chancay culture. This pottery has been found mainly in the cemeteries of the Ancon and Chancay valleys. The Chancay civilization produced ceramics on a large scale using moulds. However, open vessels with more than 400 different types of drawings that have yet to be decrypted, uniquely created by artisans, have been found. The technique used in creating ceramics was with a rough matt surface that was later painted with a dark colour, usually black or brown, on top of a lighter cream or white background. this dark on light characteristic is known as black on white. Vessels are often large and quaintly shaped. Egg-shaped jars are some of the more common. Ceramic dolls or female figurines were also created. These were usually large, female-looking dolls made from clay. The faces and sometimes the upper sections of the body are covered with ornaments of different geometric shapes.[1] The eyes were accentuated with a line on each side and the arms were usually short.[3] These geometric ornamentations are very common on Chancay ceramics.[1] Other common ceramic vessels were oblong jars with narrow necks and wide mouths, with designs in the form of human faces and geometric shapes painted in the black on cream technique. Other common animal shapes are birds or llamas.[3] There were also miniature sized idols called cuchimilcos which were anthropomorphic shapes representative of human figures, having prominent jaws and eyes painted in black. These cuchimilcos figures usually had their arms extended as if they were ready to fly or inviting a hug. It is believed that they were used to turn away bad energies. This is perhaps why they have been mostly found in the tombs of the Chancay nobility. Woodwork: The wood carvings done by the Chancay are characterized by their simplicity, sobriety[2] and use of shapes from nature, quite opposed to the sophistication of their textile art. From wood they produced implements of daily use, statues and items for decoration, some of which they painted.[2] Using the wood from their coastal desert the Chancay carved large and small objects, finely engraved with motifs reflecting the marine environment, such as seabirds and boats. They also manufactured tools for use in the textile work, in farming and fishing operations, as well as a variety of objects for worship and to distinguish the social status of the populace. Human heads carved in wood were common. They were used to crown the mummies of important dignitaries, as a mark of their status as deity or mythical ancestor, which they acquired after death. The human images in wood could also be indicators of political power, especially when they were carved into sticks or batons of command. Architecture and social organization: With respect to architecture, this civilization is noted for creating large urban centres with pyramid-shaped mounds and complex buildings. It was organized by different types of settlements or ayllus and controlled by leaders or curacas. The urban centres had typical constructions for civic-religious purposes which also included residential palaces. These urban centers were quite large, perhaps due to the mass production of goods.[2] Their culture was marked by social stratification, which was also present in the small towns. The constructions were mostly made of adobe bricks, were organized in clusters and were also similarly designed according to a specific pattern. Sometimes the most prominent constructions were mixed or combined with stones. Its inhabitants were settled based on their trade so that they could massify the production of goods. Access to the pyramids was through ramps, i.e. from top to bottom. Their hydraulic engineering works such as reservoirs and irrigation canals were also of great notoriety.[2] "(Source: Wikipedia) References 1 "The Chancay Culture". Retrieved 18 February 2013. 2. "Central Andes". Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 3. "Featured Artifacts: Chancay Culture, AD 1000-1400". SFU Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 4. "Per̼ celebra 24 a̱os de reconocimiento mundial a perro sin pelo". El Universal. 14 June 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 5. WikipediaRead more

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Pre-Columbian Chancay Pottery Canteen Shaped Vessel, C. AD 1000-1450, #825

Pre-Columbian Chancay Pottery Canteen, 825. Description: A Pre-Columbian Chancay pottery canteen shaped vessel, c. AD 1000 - 1450, the body round with narrow profile, a pair of handles flank the human-headed spout. An attractive vessel decorated with dark brown slip. Intact, light deposits. Condition: Very good for its age. It has 2 small fire clouds on the back side, with a small chip on the lip. Dimensions: H: 11" x 6" W Provenance: Ex Los Angeles private collection. ----- History: There is not much is known about the Chancay civilization which developed in the later part of the Inca empire. This culture emerged after the fall of the Wari civilization. Parts of the southern Chancay area were conquered by the Chimú in the early fifteenth century and in about 1450 A.D. the Incas were occupying both areas.[1] It is believed that the Chancay had a centralized political structure, forming a small regional state.[3] Thus the Chancay culture declined in the fifteenth century to make way for the territorial expansion of the Inca Empire. Occupying the central coast coastal region of Peru, the Chancay were centered mostly in the Chancay and Chillón valleys, although they also occupied other areas such as the Rimac and Lurin valley areas. [2] The center of the Chancay culture was located 80 kilometers north of Lima. It is a desert region but has fertile valleys bathed by rivers and is rich in resources that allowed for, among other things, extensive agricultural development. The Chancay developed intense trade relations with other regions, allowing them to interract with other cultures and settlements in a wide area. Economy: The Chancay culture based its economy on agriculture, fishing and trade. Water reservoirs and irrigation canals were built by engineers in order to develop agriculture. As the culture was geographically located on the oceanfront, they were involved in traditional fishing both from the shore as well as further out to sea from their caballitos de totora, an ancient type of watercraft unique to Peru. The Chancay also traded with other regions either by land towards the Peruvian highlands and jungle or by sea to the north and south of their borders. The settlements in Lauri, Lumbra, Tambo Blanco, Handrail, Pisquillo Chico and Tronconal focused mainly on artisans producing large-scale ceramics and textiles. The Chancay culture is the first of the Peruvian cultures that had mass production of ceramics, textiles and metals such as gold and silver which were ritualistic and domestic goods. They were also noted for their wood carved items. [1] The curacas, political leaders, regulated the production of artisans, farmers and ranchers as well as oversaw festive activities. Textiles: The most well-known Chancay artefacts are the textiles which ranged from embroidered pieces, different types of fabrics decorated with paint. A variety of techniques, colours and themes were used in the making of textiles. [2] They used an array of colours including yellows, browns, scarlet, white, blues and greens.[1] types of fabric used included: llama wool, cotton, chiffon and feathers.[2] Their technique involved were decorated open weave, brocade, embroidery, and painting.[2] Brushes were used to paint anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, geometric and other creative designs directly on the canvases. The Chancay are known for the quality of their painted tapestries. The typically geometric designs also included drawings of plants, animals such as fish, cats, birds, monkeys and dogs (most notably the hairless Peruvian dog [4]) as well as human figures.[3] Birds and deities wearing crescent-like headdresses were one of the more common decorative features.[1] They produced a variety of goods such as clothing, bags, and funeral masks.[2] Many Chancay textiles survive to date. It is believed that their production was quite extensive, due to the quantities that have been preserved. The quality of the textile material appears to be good as they were carefully made.[1] Canvases or gauzes were used primarily for religious and magical purposes. They were made for covering the head of the dead in the form of a headdresses. According to the beliefs of the time, the threads on these fabrics had to be spun in the form of an "S" in an anticlockwise direction. This thread, which had a magical character, was called lloque and, according to legend, the garments were infused with supernatural powers and served as protection in the afterlife. Feathers were inserted into a main thread which was then sewn onto the fabric. The Chancay also manufactured dolls and other objects covered with pieces of woven fabric and various threads. Ceramics: Ceramics are also a very common feature of the Chancay culture. This pottery has been found mainly in the cemeteries of the Ancon and Chancay valleys. The Chancay civilization produced ceramics on a large scale using moulds. However, open vessels with more than 400 different types of drawings that have yet to be decrypted, uniquely created by artisans, have been found. The technique used in creating ceramics was with a rough matt surface that was later painted with a dark colour, usually black or brown, on top of a lighter cream or white background. This dark on light characteristic is known as black on white. Vessels are often large and quaintly shaped. Egg-shaped jars are some of the more common. Ceramic dolls or female figurines were also created. These were usually large, female-looking dolls made from clay. The faces and sometimes the upper sections of the body are covered with ornaments of different geometric shapes. [1] The eyes were accentuated with a line on each side and the arms were usually short.[3] These geometric ornamentations are very common on Chancay ceramics.[1] Other common ceramic vessels were oblong jars with narrow necks and wide mouths, with designs in the form of human faces and geometric shapes painted in the black on cream technique. Other common animal shapes are birds or llamas.[3] There were also miniature sized idols called cuchimilcos which were anthropomorphic shapes representative of human figures, having prominent jaws and eyes painted in black. These cuchimilcos figures usually had their arms extended as if they were ready to fly or inviting a hug. It is believed that they were used to turn away bad energies. This is perhaps why they have been mostly found in the tombs of the Chancay nobility. Woodwork: The wood carvings done by the Chancay are characterized by their simplicity, sobriety [2] and use of shapes from nature, quite opposed to the sophistication of their textile art. From wood they produced implements of daily use, statues and items for decoration, some of which they painted.[2] Using the wood from their coastal desert the Chancay carved large and small objects, finely engraved with motifs reflecting the marine environment, such as seabirds and boats. They also manufactured tools for use in the textile work, in farming and fishing operations, as well as a variety of objects for worship and to distinguish the social status of the populace. Human heads carved in wood were common. They were used to crown the mummies of important dignitaries, as a mark of their status as deity or mythical ancestor, which they acquired after death. The human images in wood could also be indicators of political power, especially when they were carved into sticks or batons of command. Architecture and social organization: With respect to architecture, this civilization is noted for creating large urban centres with pyramid-shaped mounds and complex buildings. It was organized by different types of settlements or ayllus and controlled by leaders or curacas. The urban centres had typical constructions for civic-religious purposes which also included residential palaces. These urban centers were quite large, perhaps due to the mass production of goods.[2] Their culture was marked by social stratification, which was also present in the small towns. The constructions were mostly made of adobe bricks, were organized in clusters and were also similarly designed according to a specific pattern. Sometimes the most prominent constructions were mixed or combined with stones. Its inhabitants were settled based on their trade so that they could massify the production of goods. Access to the pyramids was through ramps, i.e. from top to bottom. Their hydraulic engineering works such as reservoirs and irrigation canals were also of great notoriety.[2] (Source: Wikipedia) References 1 "The Chancay Culture". Retrieved 18 February 2013. 2. "Central Andes". Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 3. "Featured Artifacts: Chancay Culture, AD 1000-1400". SFU Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 4. "Perú celebra 24 años de reconocimiento mundial a perro sin pelo". El Universal. 14 June 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 5. WikipediaRead more

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Silk Bed Spread : Handmade Vintage Custom Designed Queen Sized Thai

Silk Bed Spread 471. Handmade Vintage Custom Designed Queen Sized Thai Silk Bed Spread in Homong Pattern, from Chiang Mai, Thailand. Purchased some 45 years ago from a silk weaving shop in Chiang Mai. My wife originated the design and specific colors. This was then hand made from Thai Silk at the shop from their own silk worms. Only one piece was made and it took the seamstress over a month to create this piece of cultural art. It has never been used and has hung on a quilt rack all of these years. It has one place where the silk has separated from one of the seams that needs to be repaired. This is approximately 6 inches long and can be seen in the upper right hand part of the close up photo. Other than this, the piece is in mint condition and is a real one of kind piece of art and is 79" x 99" in size. Thai silk manufacturing process: from silkworms to silk fabric:Thai silk, like any other silk in the world is made from the cocoons of silkworms. Silkworms are the caterpillars or larva of the domesticated silk moth (Bombyx mori, family Bombycidae). The production of Thai silk begins by raising silkworms on a steady diet of white mulberry leaves (Morus alba). This process is known as sericulture. For the first month the silk worms feed on mulberry leaves. Only after the whole month of growing the caterpillars form the cocoon containing the silk. At this stage the cocoon is taken from the mulberry plant and boiled, to separate the silk thread from the silk worm. Since a single thread of silk from the cocoon is too thin to be used alone, Thai weavers combine more threads to obtain silk thread for handmade weaving. To do this silk weavers hand-reel the threads onto a wooden spindle to produce a uniform strand of raw silk. The process is very labor intensive, as it takes nearly 30 hours to produce a 0.5 kg (around 1 pound) of Thai silk. Did you know that a single cocoon can produce up to 1.5 km (almost 1 mile) of silk thread! Natural Thai silk can have a variety of colors, ranging from yellow to green. Even though most of the time light golden is characteristic of the region. The next step is to dye the silk thread. In the past, the only dye used was from aniline plants which made the fabrics blue. Today many chemical dyes are used and more colors are possible. One of the most unique characteristics of Thai silk is the color variation depending on the angle you look at silk fabric from. This shimmering appearance is given by the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fiber which allows Thai silk fabric to refract incoming light at different angles thus producing different colors. Thai silk fabric is then produced with a bamboo loom. The techniques vary depending on the type of silk that is being produced. For instance, plain weave is the simplest method of weaving; the weft thread passes over and under each ward thread, then under and over on the following line. And from here beautiful Thai silk fabric travels directly to local manufactures to use.Read more

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Native American, Giant Santo Domingo Dough Bowl, By Ambrose Atencio

Native American, Giant Santo Domingo Dough Bowl, By Ambrose Atencio, , Ca 1980's, #1092 Description: #1092 Native American, Giant Santo Domingo Dough Bowl, By Ambrose Atencio, , Ca 1980's-1990'S, Hand made and painted black on cream geometric design with basket coil bottom. Has minor rubs. Signed Ambrose Atencio. Dimensions: 17" x 6.5" Condition: Has minor rubs, but otherwise in excellent condition for age. Some background information on Ambrose Atencio follows. "Ambrose Atencio is a full blooded Native American Indian, who was born into the Santo Domingo Pueblo on June 11, 1963. He learned the art of working with clay by observing his family members who were fine established artisans. He was taught all the fundamentals of working with clay using the ancient traditional methods. The lucrative aspect of the business was why Ambrose initially began to construct these fine vessels, but now he continues to practice his methods of hand coiling pottery to preserve the ancient traditional way of his ancestors and adds to their legacy." "He specializes in hand coiled, hand painted traditional Santo Domingo pottery. He gathers all his raw materials such as clay, sand, and natural plants from within the Santo Domingo Pueblo. He hand cleans the clay for impurities, mixes all the natural pigments with water, and begins hand coiling his vessels. Once the pottery is dry he sands the finished product to give it a smooth finish all around the vessel. Ambrose then begins to hand paint his beautiful designs with a stem of a yucca that has been fashioned into a brush. The colors he uses on his designs are also provided from plants such as: spinach plant and honey bee wax. His designs are usually the traditional bird, flowers, or geometric designs. He sets his pottery out to dry and then fires his masterpieces the traditional way, outdoors. He signs his pottery as: Ambrose Atencio Kewa, Santo Domingo Pueblo, and the year it was constructed." "He is related to the following artists: Hilda Coriz (sister), Arthur Coriz (late brother-in-law), Robert Tenorio (uncle), and Ione Coriz (cousin)." (Source: PuebloDirect.com)Read more

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Native American, Navajo Hand Woven Ganado Wool Rug by Leann Tsosie

1003. Description: Native American, Navajo Hand Woven Wool Rug by Leann Tsosie, Ca 1980's, Dimensions: Approximate Measurement: 41" x 53"; Approximate Weight: 21 lbs Condition: Very good for age Provenance: Santa Fe Estate A Brief Social History of Navajo Weaving and a bit of historical context for a popular contemporary collectible: There is an ageless beauty to Navajo weaving. Navajo weaving's are many things to people. Above all else, Navajo weaving's are masterworks, regardless of whose criteria of art is used to judge them. They are evocative, timeless portraits which, like all good art, transcend time and space. Navajo weaving has captured the imagination of many not only because they are beautiful, well-woven textiles but also because they so accurately mirror the social and economic history of Navajo people. Succinctly, Navajo women wove their life experiences into the pieces. Navajo people tell us they learned to weave from Spider Woman and that the first loom was of sky and earth cords, with weaving tools of sunlight, lightning, white shell, and crystal. Anthropologists speculate Navajos learned to weave from Pueblo people by 1650. There is little doubt Pueblo weaving was already influenced by the Spanish by the time they shared their weaving skills with Navajo people. Spanish influence includes the substitution of wool for cotton, the introduction of indigo (blue) dye, and simple stripe patterning. Besides the "manta" (a wider-than-long wearing blanket), Navajo weavers also made a tunic-like dress, belts, garters, hair ties, men's shirts, breech cloths, and a "serape-style" wearing blanket. These blankets were longer-than-wide and were patterned in brown, blue and white stripes and terraced lines. For more than a century, the products of Navajo looms were probably identical to those of their Pueblo teachers, but by the end of the 1700's Navajo weaving began its divergence. While Pueblo weavers remained conservative, Navajo weavers learned that wefts did not need to be passed through all the warps each time, but rather, by stopping at whatever point they wished they could create patterning other than horizontal bands. These "pauses" in Navajo weaving are often seen as "lazy-lines" (diagonal lines across the horizontal wefts) in finished pieces. By 1800, weavers were using this technique to create terraced lines and discrete design elements. Navajo weavers also demonstrated more willingness to use color than their Pueblo teachers. Spanish documents describing the Southwest in the early 18th century mention Navajo weaving skills. By the 1700's Navajo weaving was an important trade item to the Pueblos and Plains Indian people. In 1844, Santa Fe Trail traveler Josiah Gregg reported, "a singular species of blanket, known as the Serape Navajo which is of so close and dense a texture that it will frequently hold water almost equal to gum-elastic cloth. It is therefore highly prized for protection against the rains. Some of the finer qualities are often sold among the Mexicans as high as fifty or sixty dollars each." Blankets were traded great distances as evidenced by their appearance in Karl Bodmer's 1833 painting of a Piegan Blackfoot man (Montana) wearing what appears to be a first-phase Chief's blanket or an 1845 sketch of Cheyenne at Bent's Fort (Colorado) wearing striped blankets. Historic photographs illustrate that the desirability of blankets increased with the 19th century. Closer and more frequent trading partners included the Utes, Apaches, Comanches, and Pueblos. The Spanish or Mexicans had never been able to reach a lasting peace with the Navajo. When Mexico ceded the Southwest to the United States in 1848, the "Navajo Problem" was also inherited. With a pronounced resolve, Kit Carson led a "Scorched Earth" campaign in 1863–4, destroying food caches, herds and orchards, ending in 8000 Navajo people surrendering. They were marched hundreds of miles to an arid, barren reservation, Bosque Redondo, at Fort Sumner in eastern NM. For five years the people endured incarceration with shortages of supplies, food, and water. Their culture changed dramatically during this period, not least in weaving. To substitute for their lost flocks, annuities were paid which included cotton string, commercially-manufactured natural- and aniline-dyed yarns as well as manufactured cloth and blankets. These lessened the Navajo people's reliance on their own loom products. In 1867, four thousand Spanish-made blankets were distributed to the Navajos as part of their annuity payment. The combination of widespread availability of yarns and cloth and the influence of the Spanish Saltillo designs were probably a direct inspiration in the dramatic shift in weaving during the Bosque Redondo years, from the stripes and terraced patterns of the Classic period to the serrate or diamond style of the Transitional period. It is testimony to the resiliency of Navajo culture that a period of internment could produce a robust period of change and continuity in weaving. In 1868, the Navajo were allowed to return to their beloved mesas and canyons. In exchange for their return they promised to cease aggression against neighboring peoples, and to settle and become farmers. Reservation life brought further dramatic changes to Navajo culture, including a growing reliance on American civilization and its products. The sale of weaving's in the next thirty years would provide an essential vehicle for economic change from barter to cash. Annuity goods included yarns, wool cards, indigo dye, aniline dyes, and various kinds of factory woven cloth. Skirts and blouses made of manufactured cloth replaced the woven two-piece blanket dress. Manufactured Pendleton blankets displaced hand-woven mantas and shoulder blankets so that by the 1890's, there was relatively little need for loom products in Navajo society. US government-licensed traders began to establish themselves on the new Navajo Reservation. Whatever their motivation, adventure or commerce, the traders became the chief link between the Navajo and the non-Indian world. Trading posts exchanged goods for Navajo products such as pinon nuts, wool, sheep, jewelry, baskets, and rugs. While wool and sheep were important to Navajo people for weaving and meat, they were also important to the economy beyond the Reservation. Wool was in great demand in the industrialized eastern US for coats, upholstery, and other products. Traders bought wool by the pound and sold it to wool brokers in Albuquerque and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The sheep purchased by traders were herded to the nearest rail head and on to the slaughterhouses. The herds grew substantially and it became more profitable for Navajo people to sell wool rather than utilize it in weaving. The railroad reached Gallup, NM in 1882, establishing a tangible connection between the Navajos and the wider market, with the traders acting as middlemen. The completion of the railroad signaled the closing of the American Frontier which, in turn, stimulated a nationwide interest in collecting American Indian art. The railroad made travel to the vast reaches of the west easier and thus opened the area for tourists. The traders recognized these new markets and began to influence weaving by paying better prices for weavings they thought more attractive to non-Indian buyers. This new market, coupled with the Navajo's decline in use of their hand woven products, infused new life into Navajo textile arts. By the 1880s, trading posts were well established on the Navajo Reservation, and traders encouraged weaving of floor rugs and patterns using more muted colors which they thought would appeal to the non-Indian market. By 1920, many regional styles of Navajo weaving developed around trading posts. These rugs are often known by the area's trading post's name. The history of Navajo weaving continues; over the past century, Navajo weaving has flourished, maintaining its importance as a vital native art to the present day. Virtually all the nineteenth and twentieth-century styles of blankets and rugs are still woven, and new styles continue to appear. ________________________________________ Thanks to Bruce Bernstein, former director, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, originally appeared in The Collector’s Guide to Santa Fe and Taos - Volume 11 ---------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

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Native American, Burel Naha (b. 1944) Exquisite Pottery Seed Jar, #1121

Native American, Burel Naha (b. 1944) Exquisite Pottery Seed Jar, #1121 Discriiption: #1121 Native American, Burel Naha (b. 1944) Exquisite Pottery Seed Jar, of spherical form and painted with two large, hairy legged spiders; a spider web is ghosted in the background; hallmarked on base; Dimensions: height 4 in. x diameter 4.25 in. Condition: Excellent. Burel Naha is the son of Helen Naha (Feather Woman) and grandson of Paqua Naha (Frog Woman) and brother of Rainy Naha and Sylvia Naha. Burel and his sisters continued the tradition of their famous mother in producing pottery of the finest quality and with superb design creations. He signs his pottery with a Feather and Longhair Katsina Hallmark. Burel specializes in traditional Hopi pottery but has created his own unique style. He enjoys painting spiders with intricate web designs all around his pottery. The earlier designs that he used were of the style of his mother's. Burel received his BA at Brigham Young University. He was a teacher for many years and now has dedicated his life to the traditional ways of his Hopi ancestors. Burel credits his success to his mother for teaching him the traditional ways of their ancestors. He has received awards from the New Mexico State Fair and the Gallup Inter-tribal Indian Ceremonial. -Biography from Artists in Clay: The Winona Sate University Collection of Southwest Native American Pottery (Source: Adobe Gallery) “Pueblo pottery is made using a coiled technique that came into northern Arizona and New Mexico from the south, some 1500 years ago. In the four-corners region of the US, nineteen pueblos and villages have historically produced pottery. Although each of these pueblos use similar traditional methods of coiling, shaping, finishing and firing, the pottery from each is distinctive. Various clays gathered from each pueblo’s local sources produce pottery colors that range from buff to earthy yellows, oranges, and reds, as well as black. Fired pots are sometimes left plain and other times decorated—most frequently with paint and occasionally with applique. Painted designs vary from pueblo to pueblo, yet share an ancient iconography based on abstract representations of clouds, rain, feathers, birds, plants, animals and other natural world features. Tempering materials and paints, also from natural sources, contribute further to the distinctiveness of each pueblo’s pottery. Some paints are derived from plants, others from minerals. Before firing, potters in some pueblos apply a light colored slip to their pottery, which creates a bright background for painted designs or simply a lighter color plain ware vessel. Designs are painted on before firing, traditionally with a brush fashioned from yucca fiber. Different combinations of paint color, clay color, and slips are characteristic of different pueblos. Among them are black on cream, black on buff, black on red, dark brown and dark red on white (as found in Zuni pottery), matte red on red, and poly chrome—a number of natural colors on one vessel (most typically associated with Hopi). Pueblo potters also produce un- decorated polished black ware, black on black ware, and carved red and carved black wares. Making pueblo pottery is a time-consuming effort that includes gathering and preparing the clay, building and shaping the coiled pot, gathering plants to make the colored dyes, constructing yucca brushes, and, often, making a clay slip. While some Pueblo artists fire in kilns, most still fire in the traditional way in an outside fire pit, covering their vessels with large potsherds and dried sheep dung. Pottery is left to bake for many hours, producing a high-fired result. Today, Pueblo potters continue to honor this centuries-old tradition of hand-coiled pottery production, yet value the need for contemporary artistic expression as well. They continue to improve their style, methods and designs, often combining traditional and contemporary techniques to create striking new works of art.” (Source: Museum of Northern Arizona)Read more

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Large Pottery Jar : Large Pre-Columbian Chancay Pottery Storage Jar #342

Large Pottery Jar 342. Description: Peru, Ca 1000 to 1200 CE. Large storage jar in the form of a seated beggar-legs curled up beneath him, hands holding a very small kero, Face nicely decorated. 13.5"H and comes with a stand. Provenance: Ex Brining Collection, collected some 40 years ago. Condition: Some small chips, but generally intact and excellent for its age. All items are unconditionally guaranteed to be Authentic as described. For added security we offer a full money-back guarantee if a recognized authority disputes the authenticity of any object sold. ÏHistory: Not much is known about the Chancay civilization which developed in the later part of the Inca empire. This culture emerged after the fall of the Wari civilization. Parts of the southern Chancay area were conquered by the Chim̼u in the early fifteenth century and in about 1450 A.D. the Incas were occupying both areas. [1] It is believed that the Chancay had a centralized political structure, forming a small regional state.[3] Thus the Chancay culture declined in the fifteenth century to make way for the territorial expansion of the Inca Empire. Occupying the central coast coastal region of Peru, the Chancay were centered mostly in the Chancay and ChillÌ_n valleys, although they also occupied other areas such as the Rimac and Lurin valley areas. [2] The center of the Chancay culture was located 80 kilometers north of Lima. It is a desert region but has fertile valleys bathed by rivers and is rich in resources that allowed for, among other things, extensive agricultural development. The Chancay developed intense trade relations with other regions, allowing them to interract with other cultures and settlements in a wide area. Economy: The Chancay culture based its economy on agriculture, fishing and trade. Water reservoirs and irrigation canals were built by engineers in order to develop agriculture. As the culture was geographically located on the oceanfront, they were involved in traditional fishing both from the shore as well as further out to sea from their caballitos de totora, an ancient type of watercraft unique to Peru. The Chancay also traded with other regions either by land towards the Peruvian highlands and jungle or by sea to the north and south of their borders. The settlements in Lauri, Lumbra, Tambo Blanco, Handrail, Pisquillo Chico and Tronconal focused mainly on artisans producing large-scale ceramics and textiles. The Chancay culture is the first of the Peruvian cultures that had mass production of ceramics, textiles and metals such as gold and silver which were ritualistic and domestic goods. They were also noted for their wood carved items. [1] The curacas, political leaders, regulated the production of artisans, farmers and ranchers as well as oversaw festive activities. Textiles: The most well-known Chancay artefacts are the textiles which ranged from embroidered pieces, different types of fabrics decorated with paint. A variety of techniques, colours and themes were used in the making of textiles.[2] They used an array of colours including yellows, browns, scarlet, white, blues and greens.[1] types of fabric used included: llama wool, cotton, chiffon and feathers.[2] Their technique involved were decorated open weave, brocade, embroidery, and painting.[2] Brushes were used to paint anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, geometric and other creative designs directly on the canvases. The Chancay are known for the quality of their painted tapestries. The typically geometric designs also included drawings of plants, animals such as fish, cats, birds, monkeys and dogs (most notably the hairless Peruvian dog[4]) as well as human figures.[3] Birds and deities wearing crescent-like headdresses were one of the more common decorative features.[1] They produced a variety of goods such as clothing, bags, and funeral masks.[2] Many Chancay textiles survive to date. It is believed that their production was quite extensive, due to the quantities that have been preserved. The quality of the textile material appears to be good as they were carefully made. [1] Canvases or gauzes were used primarily for religious and magical purposes. They were made for covering the head of the dead in the form of a headdresses. According to the beliefs of the time, the threads on these fabrics had to be spun in the form of an "S" in an anticlockwise direction. This thread, which had a magical character, was called lloque and, according to legend, the garments were infused with supernatural powers and served as protection in the afterlife. Feathers were inserted into a main thread which was then sewn onto the fabric. The Chancay also manufactured dolls and other objects covered with pieces of woven fabric and various threads. Ceramics: Ceramics are also a very common feature of the Chancay culture. This pottery has been found mainly in the cemeteries of the Ancon and Chancay valleys. The Chancay civilization produced ceramics on a large scale using moulds. However, open vessels with more than 400 different types of drawings that have yet to be decrypted, uniquely created by artisans, have been found. The technique used in creating ceramics was with a rough matt surface that was later painted with a dark colour, usually black or brown, on top of a lighter cream or white background. This dark on light characteristic is known as black on white. Vessels are often large and quaintly shaped. Egg-shaped jars are some of the more common. Ceramic dolls or female figurines were also created. These were usually large, female-looking dolls made from clay. The faces and sometimes the upper sections of the body are covered with ornaments of different geometric shapes.[1] The eyes were accentuated with a line on each side and the arms were usually short.[3] These geometric ornamentations are very common on Chancay ceramics.[1] Other common ceramic vessels were oblong jars with narrow necks and wide mouths, with designs in the form of human faces and geometric shapes painted in the black on cream technique. Other common animal shapes are birds or llamas. [3] There were also miniature sized idols called cuchimilcos which were anthropomorphic shapes representative of human figures, having prominent jaws and eyes painted in black. These cuchimilcos figures usually had their arms extended as if they were ready to fly or inviting a hug. It is believed that they were used to turn away bad energies. This is perhaps why they have been mostly found in the tombs of the Chancay nobility. Woodwork: The wood carvings done by the Chancay are characterized by their simplicity, sobriety [2] and use of shapes from nature, quite opposed to the sophistication of their textile art. From wood they produced implements of daily use, statues and items for decoration, some of which they painted.[2] Using the wood from their coastal desert the Chancay carved large and small objects, finely engraved with motifs reflecting the marine environment, such as seabirds and boats. They also manufactured tools for use in the textile work, in farming and fishing operations, as well as a variety of objects for worship and to distinguish the social status of the populace. Human heads carved in wood were common. They were used to crown the mummies of important dignitaries, as a mark of their status as deity or mythical ancestor, which they acquired after death. The human images in wood could also be indicators of political power, especially when they were carved into sticks or batons of command. Architecture and social organization: With respect to architecture, this civilization is noted for creating large urban centres with pyramid-shaped mounds and complex buildings. It was organized by different types of settlements or ayllus and controlled by leaders or curacas. The urban centres had typical constructions for civic-religious purposes which also included residential palaces. These urban centers were quite large, perhaps due to the mass production of goods. [2] Their culture was marked by social stratification, which was also present in the small towns. The constructions were mostly made of adobe bricks, were organized in clusters and were also similarly designed according to a specific pattern. Sometimes the most prominent constructions were mixed or combined with stones. Its inhabitants were settled based on their trade so that they could massify the production of goods. Access to the pyramids was through ramps, i.e. from top to bottom. Their hydraulic engineering works such as reservoirs and irrigation canals were also of great notoriety. [2] (Source: Wikipedia) References 1 "The Chancay Culture". Retrieved 18 February 2013. 2. "Central Andes". Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 3. "Featured Artifacts: Chancay Culture, AD 1000-1400". SFU Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 4. "Per̼ celebra 24 a̱os de reconocimiento mundial a perro sin pelo". El Universal. 14 June 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 5. WikipediaRead more

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Ceremonial Knife : Vintage Chin Ceremonial Knife from Inle Lake, Myanmar #452

Ceremonial Knife 452. Vintage ceremonial Chin knife from Inle Lake, Myanmar. Knife is toped with antler from small deer along with deer skin/fur. The case is ensized brass and copper wraped with red rope. Over all length is approximately 15 inches. Age is estimated to be in the early 1900‰۝ and overall condition is very good . Chin is one of the ethnic groups in Myanmar. The Chins are found mainly in western part of Myanmar in the Chin State and about a population of 1.5 million. They also live in nearby Indian states of Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur and Assam. Owing to Mizo influence and Baptist missionaries' intervention, 80%-90% of the population are Christians. However, a sizeable minority of the Chin adhere to their traditional tribal beliefs and Theravada Buddhism. Traditionally, the Chin were animists. The Chin are one of the largest ethnic minority groups in Myanmar. The Chin people are Tibeto-Burman groups and they probably came to Myanmar, especially the Chindwin valley in the late 9-10 century A.D. Most Chin people moved westward and they probably settled in the present Chin State around A.D 1300-1400 A.D. There are many tribes among the Chin people such as Lai, Tedim, Asho and Cho. Three major tribes of the Chin are Tedim, Falam and the Hakas. For want of a more acceptable common name they are usually called the Chin-Kuki-Mizo people, bringing together the three most common names for them whether given by outsiders or themselves. Bawn tribe in Southern Mizoram State and Bangladesh are descendants of the Lai tribe. This Chin, Mizo, Zomi, and Kuki people are scattered into three countries-Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India. The realization that these are of one and share common dialectical root and customs even though separated by international and state boundaries brought about movements for Unification of the occupied territories and of the people. (Source:Myanmar People. Net)Read more

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Nomadic Turkmen, Ceremonial Children's Garment for Special Occasions, #899

Nomadic Turkmen Ceremonial Children's Garment 899. Description: Fantastic Ethnic handmade Turkmen baby garment for ceremonial occasions.The garment is decorated by hand with handmade tassels, metals,coins, silver, shells, beads and other ornaments to guard against the evil eye. Front & Back are almost the same, heavily adorned with all of these materials. It is a one of a kind piece of Art for home decoration and/or wall handing . Dimensions: Length 20", Width: 20" Condition: Very good condition for its age. ---------- Some information on the Turkmen culture and people The Turkmen people have traditionally been nomads and equestrians, and even today after the fall of the USSR attempts to urbanize the Turkmen have not been very successful. They never really formed a coherent nation or ethnic group until they were forged into one by Joseph Stalin in the 1930's. Rather they are divided into clans, and each clan has its own dialect and style of dress. Turkmen are famous for making Turkmen rugs, often mistakenly called Bukhara rugs in the West. These are elaborate and colorful rugs, and these too help indicate the distinction between the various Turkmen clans. The Turkmen are Sunni Muslims but they, like most of the region's nomads, adhere to Islam rather loosely and combine Islam with pre-Islamic animist spirituality. The Turkmen do indeed tend to be spiritual but are by no means militantly religious. A Turkmen can be identified anywhere by the traditional "telpek" hats, which are large black sheepskin hats that resemble afros. The national dress: men wear high, shaggy sheepskin hats and red robes over white shirts. Women wear long sack-dresses over narrow trousers (the pants are trimmed with a band of embroidery at the ankle). Female headdresses usually consist of silver jewelry. Bracelets and brooches are set with semi-precious stones. Language: Outside the capital, the national language of Turkmen is the most widely encountered. In Ashgabat, it would be hard to find a person who did not speak Russian, however with recent efforts to revive the ancient culture of Turkmenistan, Turkmen is quickly regaining its place as the chief language of the state. Two significant figures in Turkmen literature are the poets Magtymguly Pyragy and Mämmetweli Kemine. Turkmen music is very similar to Khorasani music.( Source Wikipedia) ----------- Some information on the Evil Eye Follows: ----------- The evil eye is a curse believed to be cast by a malevolent glare, usually given to a person when they are unaware. Many cultures believe that receiving the evil eye will cause misfortune or injury.Talismans created to protect against the evil eye are also frequently called "evil eyes". The idea expressed by the term causes many different cultures to pursue protective measures against it. The concept and its significance vary widely among different cultures, primarily in West Asia. The idea appears several times in translations of the Old Testament. It was a widely extended belief among many Mediterranean and Asian tribes and cultures. Charms and decorations with eye-like symbols known as nazars, which are used to repel the evil eye are a common sight across Turkey, Greece, Albania, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Southern Italy (Naples), the Levant, and Afghanistan and have become a popular choice of souvenir with tourists. (Source: Wikipedia)Read more

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Original Oil Painting : Ron Stewart Oil Painting, Original Ron Stewart

Original Oil Painting 157. Description: This extraordinary Oil painting by Listed Artist Ron Stewart (1941-) entitled Winter Comforts. Signed lower left: Ron Stewart @ (cyphers). Verso: titled. Dimensions: Size is 16 x 31 inches. Condition: Excellent Condition for its age. The piece was painted in 2014. ----------- Additional Ron Stewart Paintings can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16492699 and his Bronze work can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16131018 ----------- Ron Stewart is a painter and sculptor of western, historical, wildlife, and animal subjects. He was born in Brooklyn, NY. In the over-crowded field of contemporary western artists, Ron Stewarts professional achievements have made his work familiar to a wide range of discriminating collectors. Ron is among those who is tied hard and fast to the quality of painting and the historical fidelity of the Old West Masters. The refined artistic abilities, in watercolor, oil, and bronze, are truly distinguished, but Ron brings more to his work than just the technical competence of a western illustrator. The Ron Stewart hallmark is the representation of the mood and the atmosphere appropriate to whatever he approaches. His paintings breathe life into the dusty pages of western history, be it the bawl of longhorn cattle, the war whoop of the red men, or the mountain man in his wilderness solitude. Ron has received awards multiple times at the competitive Death Valley Invitational (5), the George Phippen Memorial (3), and Best of Show, and Best Watercolor at the Pikes Peak National Invitational Show (2), and he also received numerous awards at the Western Artist of America, including three gold medals in Watercolor, two Silver medals in Watercolor, and one Silver medal in Oil, and one Silver medal in Bronze. His work can be seen at Mountain Trail Galleries in Jackson, Wyoming; Signature Gallery, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Santa Fe, NM; Long coat Gallery, Ruidoso, NM; Sanders Gallery, Tucson, AZ; and the Culturalpatina Gallery in Fairfax, VA. His life was chronicled in Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West in winter of 1979, Ron and his wife Sharon have resided in Arizona for the last 45 years. Stewart has exhibited throughout the West in juried and group shows, collecting a variety of top awards for his works, including numerous gold and silver medals in oil, watercolor, bronze and drawing. International collections include locations in England, France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Spain, the Philippines, and Japan. ----------------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

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Western Bronze Sculpture, by Renowned Western Artist Jeff Wolf, Entitled

Western Bronze Sculpture by renowned Jeff Wolf, entitled "Unspoken Honor" Cast to Order Description: #1004, Western Bronze Sculpture, by renowned Jeff Wolf, entitled "Unspoken Honor" Cast to Order, Limited Editions (10). "Unspoken Honor "is a concept Jeff developed for commission to honor our fallen troops. The scene is of a Civil War battle field. Sad wind blows as the riderless warrior looks down at his fallen comrades Springfield rifle. No detail was overlooked in the design of this incredibly moving work of art. It was such a tremendous honor to be selected for this memorial. This piece was also selected as the best in category at the Western Heritage show and sale, Palm Springs, CA Dimensions: 47"L : x 38" H x 18" W, approximately 180 pounds. Condition: Cast to Order: On all precast orders we ask for a deposit of 75%, this covers the molds and first casting. Precast orders are purchased before the sculpture has been molded and cast in bronze. This feature allows the client to get in on the ground floor of early edition numbers while saving a considerable amount over retail. Once the work is cast in bronze and is on the retail market the price does not decrease. On orders that need to be cast we require a 50% deposit with the remainder due upon completion of the piece. Shipping and insurance are the reprehensibility of the purchaser. Delivery is usually 8-10 weeks from time of order. Provenance: Jeff Wolf; 2016 Biography of Jeff Wolf and Achievements Follow: Persistence makes perfect: The trail to the top of the Western Art world is steep and narrow. It is littered with obstacles, beset with sheer drop-offs, and hindered by unexpected twists and turns. Sculptor Jeff Wolf has ridden that trail for more than twenty-five years and reached heights few artists attain. Along the way he has placed bronzes in prominent museums and permanent exhibits, in prestigious private collections, and on display in public venues. He has been bestowed with honors and awards, recognized in juried competitions, and called upon to teach and demonstrate. Jeff made—and continues—the journey on a mount called persistence. He has lived by the old cowboy maxim that it doesn’t matter how many times you get bucked off, but what counts is getting back on—brushing off adversity, dusting off disappointment, climbing back in the saddle and continuing the journey. While the ride can be a lonely one, it is not a ride Jeff makes alone. Riding with him along the way are talent and skill, creativity and vision, experience and expertise. And, of course, persistence—keeping ever after the quest to not only depict the West in art, but to capture the emotion, the motivation, the underlying aesthetics of ordinary life and extraordinary events. Saddling up; The importance of persistence was instilled in Jeff at an early age. Jeff excelled in everything he put his mind to except school. Dyslexia—virtually undiscovered at the time—made reading nearly impossible. But that didn’t stop him from graduating from high school and attending three years of college on scholarships, and eventually teaching himself to read. In high school, Jeff became a champion livestock judge and earned a silver medal at the National FFA convention, earning what was at the time the highest score ever recorded—98 out of 100—in the cattle grading division. He was also a Champion rodeo cowboy in High School, college, and a top competitor in professional rodeo, competed mainly in the bareback and bull riding events, as well as saddle bronc riding, team roping, and steer wrestling. Through it all, art sustained him. From an early age he was compelled to create. “My gift chose me, I didn’t choose it,” he says. Jeff’s story as a sculptor started at age five when he received modeling clay for Christmas. His hands and heart went to work to mold into the clay the world he saw around him. An early work, a buffalo carved from a bar of soap, earned his first recognition when published in the pages of Western Horseman magazine. With a constant driving force from within, combined with a wild imagination and insatiable desire to learn and discover, Jeff’s childhood and youth would inform his art. Along with his gift of creation he was given, in his words, “a great gift of upbringing.” Raised on a ranch in the mouth of Goshen Canyon, located south of Utah Lake, he had both the opportunities and responsibilities of any ranch kid. “I lived among the local wildlife, learned the art of handling cattle and horses, and had the fortunate opportunity to listen to the stories of real old-time cowboys, memories of which remain ingrained in my mind.” Adding to the fascination, Wolf says, was “spending most of my days, when not working on the ranch, running wild and free in the mountains, along the creeks, building hideouts, and watching wildlife or hunting.” Even anatomy lessons were in the offing. Jeff’s grandfather owned and operated a small meat packing company, which gave Jeff the opportunity to see firsthand animal anatomy from the inside out. “Grandpa used to take the front or rear leg of a beef carcass and move it as if it were walking and explain how each muscle and every bone made that movement possible.” This led Jeff to study every movement a person or animal made, trying to decipher the bones and muscles working to make that movement possible. “I developed the habit when riding for cows to ride behind another rider and watch the horse and rider as they moved as one in harmony. A nice moving horse and a true horseman is a symphony of visual music.” This curiosity and fascination with anatomy turned Jeff into a recognized master of capturing motion in sculpture. And there were other lessons to learn: Jeff says, “I know firsthand what it feels like to climb down onto the back of a bull or bucking horse, know the rush adrenaline and the explosion from the chute. I know what it’s like to sit for hour watching mule deer feed, coming so close that I could feel their breath on my hand. I have experienced the fear and drama of a stampede. And I have lived in the wild, providing for myself among the ghosts of Indians.” From his father, Jeff learned the ways of cattle and horses. “I remember one experience as if it were today,” he says. “Dad and I rode up on a cow and calf who hadn’t seen a human being all summer. She was one of those who enjoyed hiding out in country where she wasn’t easy to find. We saw each other at about the same time. Her head came up and her ears came forward, moving back and forth determining which route to take for escape. Dad said, ‘Let’s just let her look at us for a while.’ As we sat there, he explained every thought that was running through that cow’s mind by the way she her ears worked back and forth, the short, soft mooing sounds she made to her calf, her posture, and the way she looked away then back at us. “Then Dad and I rode closer, stopping every few feet so as not to pose a threat, and from a direction that would move her in the intended direction. All this, to avoid a wild chase and the possibility of losing her altogether. Within half an hour we, the cow, and the calf walked off the mountain and into the holding pasture any mishap. These are the kinds of things that have the greatest impact on my work today.” Riding out:Throughout childhood and youth, Jeff’s gift refuse to let him rest. He had to constantly be creating something. Persistence kept him sculpting, even as other interests competed for time and attention. “I didn’t sculpt a lot some years but I did keep after it. I seemed to know from my earliest years that sculpting would be my ultimate life and livelihood and I was in no hurry to get there. I was having too much fun experiencing life.” After retiring from professional rodeo, Jeff’s desire to sculpt gradually increased, fed by those very experiences. “If I haven’t personally lived the scene, I imagine myself in the time, place, and moment and visualize what it would have been like to actually be a participant. This might involve hours of research until that image or scene is fully and clearly formed in my mind. The concept then become like a photograph imprinted in my consciousness, becomes a vivid image and begs to be given life.” But three-dimensional photographic-type depictions of those scenes is not what Jeff strives for in his art. “For me,” Jeff says, “art goes far beyond mere depiction or precise rendering. I feel that true art should tell a story, put you in a place or a moment in time that stimulates the imagination and arouses the soul. It’s not about the subject matter, concept, or idea; it’s about discovery and stretching the boundaries of creativity. I strive to sculpt an experience. This is what makes me tick. Discovering how mass and negative space can be used and manipulated to become a vital part of the design. Using mirroring, and mimicking shapes to keep the eye roving around the subject to tell a story. Years of devotion to the study of art principles, combined with the determination to produce works that are worthy of the title of fine art is the motivational drive behind my work. That’s is the visual tune I dance to.” It’s not an easy dance to learn. It takes passion. Perseverance. And persistence. But those qualities, combined with an imaginative and creative mind pay off for Jeff. Then, it’s time for the work of the mind and heart to guide the hands of the sculptor. “Once the physical work begins, the piece often times takes on its own personality. I then become merely the tool that gives life to the dictation of the piece. Those times produce my finest works. “Finding ways to create the illusion of life in something like wet hair, rushing water, speed of movement, drama of action, sheer fabric flowing around the beauty of the female figure, wind whipping a mane of a stallion, or a reflection in water in a bas relief is the stimulation behind my work,” Jeff says. “I work to compose the design so that every aspect has purpose. Every line leads to another, every plane reflects light or casts a shadow for depth and dimension. Balance points create harmony and mass builds strength and stability to create a realistic illusion of movement. The synergy of opposing forces coming together and pulling apart allows me to create a greater effect, a stronger vision. My feeling is that every work I create has its own distinct personality and character. Therefore, it requires its own texture or multiple textures unique to itself as well as the composition and design that best reflects the story that is being presented. “A well-rendered pair of wrinkled and cracked work boots with worn soles and tattered laces, lying side by side as if just taken off the tired feet of the owner or even discarded will form a picture in the viewer’s mind. Some may see only a pair of boots. But others will see the life of the man who wore them— tired and wrinkled like the boots, exhausted from a hard day's labor and glad to get those old boots off his feet. Some may see dad or grandpa. Some may see a farmer plowing a field behind two mules. It really doesn’t matter what the viewer envisions, it’s the fact that a vision has been created. That is what I strive for in every work I create.” Riding on: And so Jeff Wolf went to work. And he worked. Then worked some more to blaze his own trail to the artistic heights. Making the climb, and maintaining the heights requires persistence. Over time, collectors become familiar with an artist’s background and reputation. But reputation only goes so far. If the work isn’t up to snuff, one can never expect to create or maintain demand with an inferior product. But Jeff’s persistence paid off. In 1990, art collector Ann Heckbert discovered Jeff’s sculpture at an art show in Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Ann and her husband Jim, owner of Garret Gallery, approached Jeff about showing his work. By 1991, Jeff’s life as a professional sculptor was underway and has earned been his livelihood ever since. Jeff credits Jim and Ann for launching a career that has earned him a reputation as one of the finest western sculptors of our time. Jeff’s first national juried show, the George Phippen Memorial Art Show in Prescott, Arizona, earned the artist the three highest awards: Best of Show, Best in Category and People’s Choice. He has won or placed in practically every juried art show he has participated in since, and may be the only living sculptor to have won Best of Show and People’s Choice awards in six genres of Western art: Wildlife, Figural, Rodeo, Equine, Western, and Native American. Finally, while Jeff is well aware that gifts such as his are given to individuals, the trail to success isn’t one you ride alone. Persistence is often aided by the encouragement and assistance of others. He says, “The journey to the top would have been impossible if it weren’t for the help and support of family, friends, my collectors, admirers and especially my wife Jennifer.” Jeff also believes gifts are to be shared. So he now shares his talents and knowledge with fellow artists, students of the arts, and charitable foundations. He teaches workshops, lectures at schools, and sculpts at public events. Donations of time, talent, and art have generated over one million dollars for charitable causes. God-given talent, real life experience, insatiable desire to be the best, and persistence have immortally molded and cast forever the name Jeff Wolf into the world of Western art and sculpture. The portfolio of Jeff Wolf’s work is extensive, and his name is tied to some of the most prestigious collections, galleries, and museums. Persistence has placed his art in national and international collections including: • Simons Collection, Cayman Islands • Ryder Collection, Ryder Trucking • Renn and Marie Zaphiropoulos Collection (inventor of the color tube for television and, later, the developer of laser printing) • Meredith Hodges Collection and National Mule Museum, Loveland, Colorado • Mr. and Mrs. Robert Henderson • Jim Terry (former CEO of Coca-Cola) • Jack Williams (former president of Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines) • Elton Salinas (owner of Elton’s Clothier, Las Vegas, Nevada) • Richard and Carole Kreamer (Board of Directors, American Airlines) • David and Pam Furr (Gaston Law) • Jim and Ann Heckbert (Burg Simpson Law & Humble Ranch) • Steve and Mary Kay Larsen • Lori Wilkinson (Brown & Brown Insurance of Nevada, Waymark Insurance Services) • Richard Sanders (president of Kobalt Music Group) • Buck Taylor (artist and actor) • Jane Blalock (Hall of Fame Golfer) • Jim Palmer (Hall of Fame Baseball Player) Jeff has filled commissions for sculpture for: • Coca-Cola • Susan G. Koman Foundation • T.A.P.S. Foundation • Habitat for Humanity • American Lung Association • National Retriever Club and National Amateur Retriever Club • American Airlines • Cystic Fibrosis Foundation • American Bucking Bull, Inc. • Cistercian Preparatory School Hillary award • Rodeo Champions monument, Gooding ID • And several cities, corporate executives, farmers, ranchers, sportsmen, families, and friends. Jeff’s talent has introduced him to an array of TV, movie, and sports celebrities, including: • Kimberlin Brown • Dylan Bruno • Gordon Clapp • Lenny Clarke • Jeff Dunham, • Grant Goodeve • Chris Harrison • Dennis Haskins • Sandra Hess • Brad Johnson • Wendie Malick, • Ron Masak, • Marc McClure • Rob Moran • Eloise Mumford • Eric Christian Olsen • Jason Priestly • Perrey Reeves • James Sikking, • Buck Taylor • Steve Thomas • Michael Trucco. • John York • Ian Ziering Musicians, such as: • Aaron Barker (musician and Hall of Fame songwriter) • John Cafferty (of The Beaver Brown Band) • Kevin Chalfant (of 707, The Storm, and Journey) • Daughtry • Gavin Degraw • Randall Hall (of Lynyrd Skynyrd) • David Jenkens (of Pablo Cruise) • Chris Ledoux • Alex Ligertwood (of Santana) • Gary Morris • Hootie and the Blowfish • Michael Martin Murphy • Henry Paul (formerly of Black Hawk) Sports champions, including: • Matt Bahr • Jane Blalock • Larry Brown • Brant Boyer • Scott Hamilton • Billy Kidd • Jim Lonborg • Chris McCarron • Jay Miller • Jim Palmer • Gale Sayers • Wayne Wong And, of course, a host of rodeo champions, cowboys, ranchers, artists working in all mediums, and great people from all walks of life. Other honors include: • Selected as the sculptor at the 2000 Super Bowl for the Larry Brown Foundation. • Featured artist at the Days of ‘47 Utah Heritage Art Show, 2000 • Commissioned to sculpt the six-time Labrador Retriever field trial champion and the Female Labrador Retriever Field Trials World Champion, owned by Fred Kampo, Oshkosh, Wisconsin • Designed and sculpted many awards, personal tributes, and memorials such as the Huntsville Town Veterans Memorial Monument. • Honored as one of Utah’s Most Fabulous People by Utah Valley magazine, 2012 He has also been featured in a host of magazines, such as: • Cowboy Magazine • Ranch & Reata • Range Magazine • Rodeo News • Western Horseman • Western Writers of America Roundup Magazine • Saddlebag Dispatches Footnote: I am frequently ask the question as to where I get my inspiration. My inspiration is drawn from a number things, My girls, parents, family, grand kids, friends, animals, other artists, the great outdoors, life experiences and stories I’ve heard just to name a few. Rather than creating just a well done work of art, I want my work to tell a story, something people can relate to. Things that inspire, evoke emotion, and arouse the imagination, I want my work to mean something, something that can be talked about and shared. I like my work to also be educational, whether it is from an artistic, anatomy, historical or human interest aspect. I strive to encompass and portray the emotions, feeling and expressions in every work I create.Read more

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Indian Chief : Ron Stewart Painting, Original Water Color Painting

Indian Chief 166. Description: This extraordinary water color painting by Listed Artist Ron Stewart (1941-) entitled Cry of the Wind Signed lower left: Ron Stewart @ (cyphers). Verso: titled. It also has a very detailed remarque in the lower right hand corner that adds to the overall composition of the piece. Note: This piece was a silver medal winner water solubles at the Western Artists of America 2005 Annual Exhibition the Hubbard Museum of the American West Dimensions: Size is 36 x 48 inches. Condition: Excellent Condition for its age. The piece was painted in 2005. ----------- Additional Ron Stewart Paintings can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16492699 and his Bronze work can be found at:https://www.etsy.com/your/shops/CulturalPatina/sections/16131018 ----------- Ron Stewart is a painter and sculptor of western, historical, wildlife, and animal subjects. He was born in Brooklyn, NY. In the over-crowded field of contemporary western artists, Ron Stewarts professional achievements have made his work familiar to a wide range of discriminating collectors. Ron is among those who is tied hard and fast to the quality of painting and the historical fidelity of the Old West Masters. The refined artistic abilities, in watercolor, oil, and bronze, are truly distinguished, but Ron brings more to his work than just the technical competence of a western illustrator. The Ron Stewart hallmark is the representation of the mood and the atmosphere appropriate to whatever he approaches. His paintings breathe life into the dusty pages of western history, be it the bawl of longhorn cattle, the war whoop of the red men, or the mountain man in his wilderness solitude. Ron has received awards multiple times at the competitive Death Valley Invitational (5), the George Phippen Memorial (3), and Best of Show, and Best Watercolor at the Pikes Peak National Invitational Show (2), and he also received numerous awards at the Western Artist of America, including three gold medals in Watercolor, two Silver medals in Watercolor, and one Silver medal in Oil, and one Silver medal in Bronze. His work can be seen at Mountain Trail Galleries in Jackson, Wyoming; Signature Gallery, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Santa Fe, NM; Long coat Gallery, Ruidoso, NM; Sanders Gallery, Tucson, AZ; and the Culturalpatina Gallery in Fairfax, VA. His life was chronicled in Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West in winter of 1979, Ron and his wife Sharon have resided in Arizona for the last 45 years. Stewart has exhibited throughout the West in juried and group shows, collecting a variety of top awards for his works, including numerous gold and silver medals in oil, watercolor, bronze and drawing. International collections include locations in England, France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Spain, the Philippines, and Japan. ----------------- View the other items in my shop: http://www.etsy.com/shop/CulturalPatina?ref=shopsection_shophome_leftnavDescription:Read more

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Antique Pottery : Historic Pottery Pot From Bagan, Myanmar #446

Antique Pottery Historic Pottery Pot From Bagan, Myanmar.Historic Pottery Pot collected from the Local villagers in Bagan, Myanmar. Dimensions 4.5" high x 5" wide. In excellent condition considering its age which is reportedly the 11th century. Bagan is an ancient city located in the Mandalay Region of Burma. From the 9th to 13th centuries, the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Pagan, the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern Myanmar. During the kingdom's height between the 11th and 13th centuries, over 4,000 Buddhist temples, pagodas and monasteries were constructed in the Bagan plains alone, of which the remains of over 2200 temples and pagodas still survive to the present day. (Source: Wikipedia) Bagan History The monuments seem to overwhelm the landscape. There are about 2,000 of them covering an area of 16 square miles on the eastern bank of the Ayeyarwady in central Myanmar. They are in different sizes and in a bewildering variety of shapes. They are also in varying stages of preservation and disrepair. Some of them throb with life, visited by devotees, a few have become little more than piles of bricks. Whence do they come, these monuments? Who built them? Why? To find an answer to questions such as these one has to travel back in time, to a time when Bagan flourished as a royal city, the heart of a great kingdom. Tradition has it that Bagan was founded by Thamoddarit in the early 2nd century. But perhaps it would be better to date the Bagan of the monuments from its establishment as a walled city, with twelve gates and a moat, by King Pyinbya in 849. The chronicles give a list of kings who reigned at Bagan from Thamoddarit onwards, with Pyinbya as the 34th king. But legend is inextricably mingled with history, and sometimes overshadow it, in the accounts of the kings in the chronicles, and it is only with the 42nd king in the list, Anawrahta, that Bagan emerges into the clear light of history. The two and a half centuries from Anawahta's( 1044-1077) accession to the throne in 1044 to the flight of Narathihapate (1256-1287) from the capital in 1283 in the face of the Mongol invasion were the years of Bagan's greatness. The kingdom stretched from Bhamo in the north and far down to the south, from the Thanlwin river in the east to the Western Yoma in the west. Bagan was known as Tattadesa, the Parched Land, to the Mons, and not much rice was grown in the environs of the capital itself. But the royal city could draw upon the rich rice granaries of Kyaukse, 90 miles to the northeast, and Minbu, 70 miles to the south. The Ayeyarwady river linked it to the sea and to the commerce of the Indian Ocean. There was much intercourse with neighbouring countries. Support was given to King Vijaya Bahu I (105 9-1114) of Sri Lanka to sustain him in his struggle against the Chola of southern India to help him re-establish a purified Buddhism. Missions were sent to the northern Song capital of Kaifeng. Repairs were made to the Mahabodhi temple at Bodh Gaya in northern India. Perhaps more salient than all these indications of economic well-being and political power was the fact that Buddhism flourished exceedingly in Bagan. Tradition, basing itself upon the Sinhalese chronicle, the Mahavamsa, attributes the origins of Buddhism in Myanmar to the mission of Sona and Uttara who, in the 3rd century B.C., came to Suvannabhumi, usually identified with That on, on the Gulf of Mottama. Some modern scholars dispute this point. But even if tradition is to be ignored, there can be no denying that Buddhism was already flourishing in Myanmar in the 1st century A.D., as attested by the archaeological evidence at Peikthanomyo (Vishnu City), 90 miles southeast of Bagan. Buddhism was also an invigorating influence at Thayekhittaya, near modern Pyaymyo 160 miles south of Bagan, where a developed civilization flourished from the 5th to the 9th century. Notwithstanding the fact that Buddhism had enjoyed a long history in Myanmar before the 11th century, the reign of Anawrahta provided a landmark in the development of Buddhism in Myanmar. Anawrahta was a king of strong religious zeal as well as one of great power. His clay votive tablets, made to acquire merit, are found widely in Myanmar from Katha in the north to Twante in the south. These votive tablets usually have, on the obverse, a seated image of the Buddha in the earth-touching attitude, with two lines underneath which express the essence of the Buddhist creed: The Buddha hath the causes told Of all things springing from causes; And also how things cease to be, 'Tis this the Mighty Monk proclaims. On the reverse would be the prayer: Desiring that he may be freed from samscira the Great Prosperous King Aniruddha himself made this image of the Lord. The chronicles relate that a monk from Thaton, Shin Arahan, came to Anawrahta in Bagan and preached to him the Law, on which Anawrahta was seized with an ecstasy of faith and said, "Master, we have no other refuge than thee! From this day forth, my master, we dedicate our body and our life to thee! And, master, from thee I take my doctrine!" Shin Arahan further taught Anawrahta that without the Scriptures, the Tipitaka, there could be no study, and that it was only with the Tipitaka that the Religion would last long. Anawrahta, informed that there were thirty sets of the Tipitaka at Thaton, sent an envoy with presents to its king,Manuha, and asked for the Tipitaka. Manuha refused, on which Anawrahta sent a mighty army, conquered Thaton, and brought back the thirty sets of Tipitaka on Manuha's thirty-two white elephants, as well as Manuha and his court and all manners of artisans and craftsmen. From its patronage by Anawrahta is usually dated the flourishing of Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar, and the monuments of Bagan, with only a few exceptions, are all monuments of Theravada Buddhism. The establishment of Theravada Buddhism as the dominant religion of Myanmar did not preclude the existence of other schools and beliefs. Prior to the coming of Buddhism there existed in Myanmar a folk religion which involved the worship of nats or spirits to whom offerings were made. The spirits were not only those of nature, but also of personages who had died a violent or tragic death. At Bagan the cult of the Mahagiri ("Great Mountain") rato-brother and sister who had their abode at Mount Popa, 40 miles to the southeast of Bagan-was particularly strong This folk religion persisted in a symbiotic existence with Theravada Buddhism at Bagan. But that was not all. Mahayana Buddhism, with its pantheon of Bodhisattvas who had postponed their entry into nirvana to help their fellow creatures find salvation, also continued to have a tenuous presence at Bagan, a presence which can be detected in some of the details of the monuments. There was a presence too of Hinduism, which the court drew upon for some of its rituals and ceremonies. Religious fervour, brought on by the flowering of Theravada Buddhism, inspired the men and women of Bagan to undertake great works of merit and to give lavishly to the Religion. The donation of a noble lady is thus recorded: When our Lord Kinkathu passed away, our Lord's wife, who loved her husband as her own life, was agitated at the law of instability and made three dwellings to the Three Gems. Out of a heart of boundless faith she built the three dwellings wishing that the merit of her good deed would go to the three persons: her deceased lord, her mother and her father. Her private property, the nine kinds of gems, her gold and silver, red copper and white copper, iron, lead, her outward property, such as boats, elephants, cattle, buffaloes, goats, ivory, and her slaves and lands and gardens-in order that such property might be a support to the Religion, she offered them without stint to the Lords"s Religion and allotted them to the three dwellings, and, calling the earth to witness, she poured the water of offering. The usual aspiration in these religious donations w as to acquire merit, be reborn in the celestial realms, to come into the presence of Metteyva, the next Buddha, and finally to attain nibbana. But sometimes the aspiration would rise higher-to that of Buddhahood itself. A good example of this aspiration is provided by the dedicatory prayer-written in elegant Pali verse-offered by King Alaungsithu (1113-1163) on building the Shwegugyi temple in 1131: By merit of this act I would behold Metteyya, captain of the world, endued With two and thirty emblems, where he walks Enhaloed on a rainbow pathway fair Like Meru King of mountains, and sets free Samsara's captives by his holy words. There might I hear good Law, and bending low Offer the four things needful to the Lord And all his monks, till clad in virtues eight Informed by such a Teacher, I become A Buddha in the eyes of spirits and men... A noble aspiration indeed! But whatever the aspiration, the merit acquired by the donation was not meant for the donor alone, but for all. Thus Queen Pwa Saw made this prayer of dedication: May my noble husband lord the king, my son the king, my grandson the king, these three kings, and all the future kings to come share equally with me the merit of this work. May the princes and princesses, the queen and all her ladies-in-waiting, the ministers and all the hosts, the Thagya, Brahma, the four Guardians of the world and all the spirits, Tataw the Yama King, men and other beings who dwell in our would-system and other world-systems from Avici hell below to the celestial realms above also get a share of my merit. May they escape the miseries of samsara and reach nibbana which is free from misery." With great magnanim-ity, then, Queen Pwa Saw shared the merit of her act with all beings of the thirty-one realms: the twenty celestial realms of the brahmas, the six celestial realms of the thagyas or devas, the mundane realm, and even the four hells. The donors of Bagan indeed gave lavishly to the Religion. But what were the expenses of building the pagodas and temples which they built in such profusion? It is to be remembered that the workmen employed for the building were free men who had to be provided with board and wages. Princess Asawkyun le this list of expenses for the building of a temple: Grand total of silver 1747 (ticals) 3 pay Grand total of copper 74 viss Grand total of loincloth 113 pieces Grand total of gold for smearing the spire 23 ticals Grand total of quicksilver 92 ticals Grand total of paddy 1867'/2 baskets Grand total of areca nuts 2 Barrels and 1166? Grand total of black pepper 7/23 viss Grand total of salt 754 viss Grand total of copper for the spire 66 viss The builders of Bagan built both with wood and with brick, but the wooden buildings have been destroyed and only the brick remain. Since brick structures abounded at Peikthanomyo in the 1st century, there was already a millenium-old tradition of brick masonry when the men of Bagan began to give expression to their religious fervour in brick. The builders of Bagan built in brick with masterful ease and the brickwork of the Bagan monuments is excellent-the bricks are fashioned with care and made to fit together with so little intervening space that the mortar is hardly visible. Not only have architectural forms derived from India been assimilated and reshaped but the true or voussoir arch-unknown in India - and its extension, the vault, is used with great effectiveness. (Source: Bagan, Myanmar.com)Read more

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