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Italienische Landschaft (Italian Landscape)
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Gerhard Richter\noil on canvas\nPainted in 1966.\n\nAn early photo-painting by Gerhard Richter, Italienische Landschaft (Italian Landscape), 1966, is among the first landscape paintings that the artist created in his career. Presenting a reinterpretation of the grand tradition of landscape painting in Romanticism, the work presents a sublime mountainous vista shrouded in heavy fog. Rendered in grisaille with the feathered brushwork synonymous with Richter’s blurred painterly idiom, Italienische Landschaft dissolves before our eyes into a flat field of subtle grey striations, pushing the figurative into the realm of abstraction. Painted in 1966, this majestic painting anticipates at once his large scale photo-paintings and abstract works, such as Vierwaldstätter See (Lake Lucerne), 1969, and his monochrome Graue Bilder (Grey Paintings) from the 1970s. While relatively few landscape paintings exist in Richter’s oeuvre, no other motif has preoccupied the artist for such a sustained duration as that of landscape. Richter painted his first landscape paintings in 1963, just one year after he conceived his very first photo-paintings. Having moved to Düsseldorf from the German Democratic Republic in 1961, Richter, bombarded by the visual onslaught of the Western economic miracle, sought to critically examine the “truth claim” of photography by making paintings based on photographs that he sourced from newspapers, books, and family albums. However, Richter later came to reassess his earlier statements on the criteria for choosing certain photographs, explaining in 1986 how the criterion was, “content, definitely—though I may have denied this at one time” (Gerhard Richter, quoted in Benjamin H.D. Buchloh, “An Interview with Gerhard Richter”, 1986, October Files, no. 8, Cambridge, 2009, p. 13).Italienische Landschaft belongs to the group of early photo-paintings of faraway places that art historian Dietmar Elger specifically highlighted as exemplary for the dichotomy they presented “between the objectifiable distance generated by black and white painting and the artist’s personal interest in the motifs” (Dietmar Elger, Gerhard Richter Landscapes, exh. cat., Sprengel Museum, Hannover, 1998, p. 19). As with Niagara Falls, 1964, or Sphinx von Gizeh, 1964, the present work portrays a landscape that Richter himself had never visited; he would tellingly only go on his first holiday abroad in 1968. Based on found photographs, these works collectively convey the middle-class desire for faraway holidays, and the implied economic independence. With Italienische Landschaft, Richter subversively resuscitates the genre of landscape painting that was deemed outdated in the contemporary art context of the 1960s. While its sublime vista recalls those of Romantic painter Casper David Friedrich, Richter’s landscapes are diffused and void of human presence. As Richter explained, “landscapes…show my yearning…But though these pictures are motivated by the dream of classical Order and a pristine world – by nostalgia, in other words – the anachronism in them takes on a subversive and contemporary quality” (Gerhard Richter, “Notes 1981”, The Daily Practice of Painting, London, 1995, p. 98). By subtly blurring the image, Richter deliberately aims to create a distance between the viewer and the landscape depicted. If the viewer is encouraged to lose him or herself in the painterly space of traditional landscape painting, in Italienische Landschaft one is, “left in a state of perpetual limbo bracketed by exigent pleasures and an understated but unshakable nihilism. Those who approach Richter’s landscapes with a yearning for the exotic or the pastoral are greeted by images that first intensify that desire and then deflect it” (Robert Storr, Gerhard Richter: Forty Years of Painting, exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2002, p. 67). Masterfully recreating a photograph whilst allowing the process of its painterly making to remain visible, Richter heightens the tension between painting and photography, abstraction and figuration, truth and fiction – presenting to us an image that is conceptually subversive as it is utterly magnificent.
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text

An early photo-painting by Gerhard Richter,<em> Italienische Landschaft (Italian Landscape), </em>1966,<em> </em>is among the first landscape paintings that the artist created in his career. Presenting a reinterpretation of the grand tradition of landscape painting in Romanticism, the work presents a sublime mountainous vista shrouded in heavy fog. Rendered in grisaille with the feathered brushwork synonymous with Richter&rsquo;s blurred painterly idiom, <em>Italienische Landschaft </em>dissolves before our eyes into a flat field of subtle grey striations, pushing the figurative into the realm of abstraction. Painted in 1966, this majestic painting anticipates at once his large scale photo-paintings and abstract works, such as <em>Vierwaldst&auml;tter See (Lake Lucerne),</em> 1969, and his monochrome <em>Graue Bilder</em> <em>(Grey Paintings)</em> from the 1970s. <br /><br />While relatively few landscape paintings exist in Richter&rsquo;s oeuvre, no other motif has preoccupied the artist for such a sustained duration as that of landscape. Richter painted his first landscape paintings in 1963, just one year after he conceived his very first photo-paintings. Having moved to D&uuml;sseldorf from the German Democratic Republic in 1961, Richter, bombarded by the visual onslaught of the Western economic miracle, sought to critically examine the &ldquo;truth claim&rdquo; of photography by making paintings based on photographs that he sourced from newspapers, books, and family albums. However, Richter later came to reassess his earlier statements on the criteria for choosing certain photographs, explaining in 1986 how the criterion was, &ldquo;content, definitely&mdash;though I may have denied this at one time&rdquo; (Gerhard Richter, quoted in Benjamin H.D. Buchloh, &ldquo;An Interview with Gerhard Richter&rdquo;, 1986, <em>October Files</em>, no. 8, Cambridge, 2009, p. 13).<br /><br /><em>Italienische Landschaft</em> belongs to the group of early photo-paintings of faraway places that art historian Dietmar Elger specifically highlighted as exemplary for the dichotomy they presented &ldquo;between the objectifiable distance generated by black and white painting and the artist&rsquo;s personal interest in the motifs&rdquo; (Dietmar Elger,<em> Gerhard Richter Landscapes</em>, exh. cat., Sprengel Museum, Hannover, 1998, p. 19). As with <em>Niagara Falls</em>, 1964, or <em>Sphinx von Gizeh, </em>1964, the present work portrays a landscape that Richter himself had never visited; he would tellingly only go on his first holiday abroad in 1968. Based on found photographs, these works collectively convey the middle-class desire for faraway holidays, and the implied economic independence. <br />With<em> Italienische Landschaft, </em>Richter subversively resuscitates the genre of landscape painting that was deemed outdated in the contemporary art context of the 1960s. While its sublime vista recalls those of Romantic painter Casper David Friedrich, Richter&rsquo;s landscapes are diffused and void of human presence. As Richter explained, &ldquo;landscapes&hellip;show my yearning&hellip;But though these pictures are motivated by the dream of classical Order and a pristine world &ndash; by nostalgia, in other words &ndash; the anachronism in them takes on a subversive and contemporary quality&rdquo; (Gerhard Richter, &ldquo;Notes 1981&rdquo;, <em>The Daily Practice of Painting</em>, London, 1995, p. 98). <br /><br />By subtly blurring the image, Richter deliberately aims to create a distance between the viewer and the landscape depicted. If the viewer is encouraged to lose him or herself in the painterly space of traditional landscape painting, in <em>Italienische Landschaft </em>one is, &ldquo;left in a state of perpetual limbo bracketed by exigent pleasures and an understated but unshakable nihilism. Those who approach Richter&rsquo;s landscapes with a yearning for the exotic or the pastoral are greeted by images that first intensify that desire and then deflect it&rdquo; (Robert Storr, <em>Gerhard Richter: Forty Years of Painting</em>, exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2002, p. 67). Masterfully recreating a photograph whilst allowing the process of its painterly making to remain visible, Richter heightens the tension between painting and photography, abstraction and figuration, truth and fiction &ndash; presenting to us an image that is conceptually subversive as it is utterly magnificent.

maker

Gerhard Richter

medium

oil on canvas

makerId

11026

condition

This work is in good condition. The canvas, six member stretcher and attachments are in generally good condition. There is a repaired h-shaped tear to the upper right quadrant, visible from the reverse, with associated small hairline cracking. There are small, scattered stable cracks to the surface in places and along the extreme turning edges. When examined under ultra-violet light there is an area which fluoresces associated with the repaired tear as well as with a few of the surface cracks and corners.

exhibited

New York, Barbara Gladstone Gallery / Rudolf Zwirner Gallery, <em>Gerhard Richter. Paintings 1964-1974</em>, December 13, 1986 &ndash; January 17, 1987, no. 167/2, n.p. (illustrated, incorrectly dated 1967)

extraInfo

<a href="mailto:aloiacono@phillips.com">Amanda Lo Iacono</a><br /> Head of Evening Sale<br /> New York<br /> +1 212 940 1278<br /> <a href="mailto:aloiacono@phillips.com">aloiacono@phillips.com</a><br />

dimensions

42 1/2 x 44 1/2 in. (108 x 113 cm.)

literature

<em>Gerhard Richter</em>, exh. cat., Gegenverkehr, Aachen, 1969, no. 45, n.p. (illustrated, incorrectly dated 1967)<br /><em>Gerhard Richter</em>, exh. cat., XXXVI Biennale, Venice, 1972, no. 167/2, p. 68 (illustrated, incorrectly dated 1967)<br />J&uuml;rgen Harten, Dietmar Elger, <em>Gerhard Richter: Paintings 1962-1985</em>, Cologne, 1986, no. 167/2, p. 154 (illustrated, p. 68, incorrectly dated 1967)<br />Benjamin H. D. Buchloh, ed., <em>Gerhard Richter, Werk&uuml;bersicht/Catalogue Raisonn&eacute; 1962-1993,</em> vol. III, Ostfildern-Ruit, 1993, no. 167-2, n.p. (illustrated, incorrectly dated 1967)<br />Dietmar Elger, ed., <em>Gerhard Richter Landscapes</em>, 2011, p. 19<br />Dietmar Elger, ed., <em>Gerhard Richter. Catalogue Raisonn&eacute; 1962-1968, vol. 1 (nos. 1 &ndash; 198)</em>, Ostfildern, 2011, no. 167-2, p. 337 (illustrated)

provenance

Barbara Gladstone Gallery / Rudolf Zwirner Gallery, New York<br />G&uuml;nter Ulbricht Collection, Dusseldorf<br />Collection Bernd F. Lunkewitz, Berlin (acquired from the above in the 1980s)<br />Christie's, London, October 16, 2009, lot 13<br />Private Collection, Europe

objectNumber

114817

lotNumberFull

12

artistBiography

<p>Powerhouse painter Gerhard Richter has been a key player in defining the formal and ideological agenda for painting in contemporary art. His instantaneously recognizable canvases literally and figuratively blur the lines of representation and abstraction. Uninterested in classification, Richter skates between unorthodoxy and realism, much to the delight of institutions and the market alike.&nbsp;</p><p>Richter&#39;s color palette of potent hues is all substance and &quot;no style,&quot;&nbsp;in the artist&#39;s own words. From career start in 1962, Richter developed both his photorealist and abstracted languages side-by-side, producing voraciously and evolving his artistic style in short intervals. Richter&#39;s illusory paintings find themselves on the walls of the world&#39;s most revered museums&mdash;for instance, London&rsquo;s Tate Modern displays the <em>Cage (1) &ndash; (6)</em>, 2006 paintings that were named after experimental composer John Cage and that inspired the <a href="https://www.phillips.com/article/5683077/richter-meets-rambert">balletic &#39;Rambert Event&#39;</a>&nbsp;hosted by Phillips Berkeley Square in 2016.&nbsp;</p>

artistBirthYear

1932

artistNationality

German


*Note that the price is not recalculated to the current value, but refers to the actual final price at the time the product was sold.

*Note that the price is not recalculated to the current value, but refers to the actual final price at the time the product was sold.


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